Flashcards in MTB 2: Bottling and Packaging Deck (53)
Free SO2 levels in stored bulk wine:
Dry reds: 25-30 mg/L and dry whites: 35 mg/L
Hazard analysis and critical control point - compulsory in EU for handling of foodstuffs.
When a CCP cannot be removed:
A documented monitoring system is introduced.
Bottling stage most important for HACCP because...
It is the last stage where errors can easily be checked and corrected.
International standards organisation. Has quality management systems often called ISO 9000. ISO 9001 used in wine industry. Form of accreditation (documenting, monitoring, stipulating procedures etc.).
Volatile compound responsible for corky/musty taint in wine.
Options for pre-bottling analysis:
HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and rapid DNA testing.
Measuring free SO2:
Titration of a known volume of wine with a known concentration of iodine.
Measuring total SO2:
Treat the wine with alkaline solution, thereby releasing the bound SO2 converting it to the free form. Titration follows.
Enzymatic essay or HPLC.
Distillation and hydrometer reading or with an ebulliometer.
Measuring residual sugar:
Fehlings titration (reaction with copper salts).
Brut nature (in the EU):
No dosage liqueur and <3g/L
Extra brut (in the EU):
Brut (in the EU):
Dry, sec and trocken sparkling (in the EU):
Medium-dry, demi-sec, halbtrocken sparkling (in the EU):
Sweet, doux, süss/mild sparkling (in the EU):
Dry, sec and trocken still (in the EU):
<4g/L (<9g/L where residual sugar does not exceed TA by more than 2g/L)
Medium-dry, demi-sec, halbtrocken still (in the EU):
<12g/L (<18g/L where residual sugar does not exceed TA by more than 10g/L)
Medium, moelleux and lieblich still (in the EU):
Sweet, doux, süss/mild still (in the EU):
Titratable acidity/total acidity.
Minimum TA for EU table wines:
Normal pH range for most wines:
2.8 to 4.0 - below 3.0 is extreme and hot climate red between 3.4 and 3.6
Paper chromatographic procedure.
Measured enzymatically or by titration.
Dissolved CO2 levels in young white wines:
Total dry extract (TDE):
Brings together alcoholic strength, specific gravity, VA and SO2 levels. Measured in g/L. Stops fraud.