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Cardiovascular System > Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab Deck (47)
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Apex

Blunt point on the bottom of the heart

1

Atria

Two upper chambers of the heart
(Receiving chambers)

2

Ventricles

Two lower chambers of the heart
(Discharging chambers)

3

Myocardium

Cardiac muscle tissue on the heart chambers

4

Endocardium

Thin layer of very smooth tissue lining the heart chambers

5

Endocarditis

Inflammation of the heart chamber lining

6

Thrombus

Clot

7

Pericardium

Lining of the heart

8

Visceral pericardium

Inner layer of pericardium
(Covers heart like apple skin)

9

Parietal pericardium

Outer layer of pericardium
-fits heart loosely to allow room for heart beating

10

Systole

Contraction of the heart

11

Diastole

Relaxation of the heart

12

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

Two valves that separate the atrial chambers above the ventricles

13

The left AV valve is

Bicuspid
Mitral
Tricuspid

14

Chordae tendinae

Attach the AV valves to the wall of the ventricles

15

Semilunar SL valves

Located between the two ventricular chambers

16

Superior & inferior vena cava

Two large veins that the blood enters through in the right atrium

17

Pulmonary artery

Artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

18

Pulmonary veins

Any vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

19

Aorta

Artery that gives off oxygenated blood to the body

20

What happens when blood goes through the lungs

Oxygen is added and carbon dioxide is lost

21

Coronary circulation

Delivery of oxygen & removal of waste in the myocardium

22

Coronary arteries

Aortas first branches
Supplies blood to the myocardium

23

Embolism

Blood clot that plugs up some part of the coronary artery

24

Myocardial infarction

Death of cardiac muscle cells resulting from inadequate blood supply as in coronary thrombosis

25

Agina pectoris

Describes chest pains that occurs when the myocardium is low on oxygen

26

Coronary bypass surgery

Where veins are taken from other parts of the body to bypass the partial blockage

27

Sinoatrial node

The hearts pacemaker
Where impulse normally starts

28

Atrioventricular node

Small mass of specialized cardiac tissue

29

AV bundle

Fibers in the heart that relay a nerve impulse from the AV node to the ventricles

30

Purkinje fiber

Relays impulses from the AV node to the ventricles causing them to contract

31

Electrocardiogram

Record hearts electrical activity

32

Tunica externa

Outermost layer (arteries & veins)
Made of connective tissue fibers which reinforce the wall of the vessel so that it will not burst under pressure
•thinner in arteries
• thicker in veins

33

Tunica media

Middle layer
•thicker in arteries to push blood out & maintain blood pressure
•thinner in veins of elastic fibrous tissue

34

Tunica intima

Inner layer
Single layer of squamous epithelial cells

35

Precapillary sphincters

Guard the entrances to the capillaries and determine how much blood will flow into each capillary

36

Arteries & arterioles

Distribute blood from the heart to capillaries all over body
•help maintain blood pressure at normal level

37

Venules & veins

Collect blood from capillaries and return it to the heart
•carry blood under lower pressure

38

Capillaries

Functional exchange vessels

39

Systemic circulation

Blood flow from the left ventricle to all parts of the body and back to the right atrium

40

Pulmonary circulation

Venous blood flow from the right atrium to the lung and returning to the left atrium

41

Hepatic portal circulation

The route of blood flow through the liver

42

Blood pressure gradient

The difference between two blood pressures in the body

43

Hypertension

Abnormally high blood pressure

44

Peripheral resistance

Describes any force that acts against the flow of blood I'm a blood vessel

45

Vasomotor mechanism

Factors that control changes in the diameter of arterioles by changing the tension of smooth muscle in the vessel walls

46

Central venous pressure

Venous pressure within the right atrium that influences the pressure I'm the large peripheral veins