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1

age-equivalent scores

also referred to as age norms - p.136

2

age norms

- indicates the AVERAGE performance for a particular chronological AGE GROUP
- used as a reference in CONTEXT of the AGE of the testtaker
- the average age at which particular performances are expected to appear.
- these age norms are used as age-equivalent performance indicators - also referred to as age-equivalent scores; contrast with grade norms - p.136

3

classical test theory (CTT)

- also known as 'true score theory' & 'true score model'
- system of assumptions about measurement
- the composition of a TEST SCORE is made up of a relatively stable component which is what the test/individual item is designed to measure PLUS a component that is ERROR.
p.123 (164-166, 280-281)

4

construct

- an informed, scientific idea developed or generated to describe or explain behaviour - e.g., "intelligence", "personality", "anxiety", and "job satisfaction" - p.119 (198)

5

content-referenced testing and assessment

- way of DERIVING MEANING from test scores by evaluating an individual's score with reference to a SET STANDARD.
- also referred to as DOMAIN- OR CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTING & ASSESSMENT.
DISTINCTION: CONTENT-REFERENCED interpretations are those where the score is directly interpreted in terms of performance AT EACH POINT on the achievement continuum being measured - while CRITERION-REFERENCED interpretations are those where the score is DIRECTLY INTERPRETED in terms of performance at ANY GIVEN POINT on the continuum of an EXTERNAL VARIABLE. p.140

6

convenience sample

- is one which is CONVENIENT or AVAILABLE for use - not necessarily the most representative of the population being studied - generalisation of findings utilising these samples must be made with caution - also known as an incidental sample p.133

7

criterion

the standard against which a test or test score are evaluated - standard may take many forms (e.g., a specific behaviour or set of behaviours) p.139 (190,421)

8

criterion-referenced testing and assessment

- way of DERIVING MEANING from test scores by evaluating an individual's score with reference to a SET STANDARD (CRITERION)- also referred to as "domain-referenced testing" & "content-referenced testing and assessment" DISTINCTION - CONTENT_REFERENCED interpretations are those where the score is directly interpreted in terms of performance AT EACH POINT on the achievement continuum being measured - while CRITERION-REFERENCED INTERPRETATIONS are those where the score is DIRECTLY INTERPRETED in terms of performance at ANY GIVEN POINT on the continuum of an EXTERNAL VARIABLE. p.139-141 (163-164, 243)

9

cumulative scoring

- method of scoring - the points/scores ACCUMULATE on individual items or subtests & are TALLIED - the higher the sum, the higher the individual is presumed to be on ability, trait or other characteristic being measured; contrast with class scoring and ipsative scoring ......p.121

10

developmental norms

Norms derived on the basis of any trait, ability, skill, or other charcteristic presumed to develop, deteriorate or otherwise be affected by CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, SCHOOL GRADE, or STAGE OF LIFE p.137

11

domain-referenced testing and assessment

- way of DERIVING MEANING from test scores by evaluating an individual's score with reference to a SET STANDARD (CRITERION)- also referred to as "domain-referenced testing" & "content-referenced testing and assessment" p.139-141 (163-164, 243).

12

domain sampling

1) a sample of behaviours from all possible behaviours that could be indicative of a particular construct; 2) a sample of test items from all possible items that could be used to measure a particular construct - p.121n1

13

equipercentile method

a procedure for comparing scores on two or more equivalent tests (as in the creation of national anchor norms) where percentile norms are calculated for each test & the corresponding scores are identified - p.138

14

error variance

the component of a test score attributable to sources OTHER than the TRAIT or ABILITY BEING MEASURED p.123 (146)

15

fixed reference group scoring system

an AID for providing CONTEXT for INTERPRETATION of a test score - p.139

16

grade norms

designed to indicate the AVERAGE test performance of testtakers in a given school grade - designed as a reference in CONTEXT of the GRADE of the testtaker - p.136

17

incidental sample

- is one which is CONVENIENT or AVAILABLE for use - not necessarily the most representative of the population being studied - generalisation of findings utilising these samples must be made with caution - also known as a convenience sample p.133

18

local norms

provide normative information with respect to the local population's performance on some test - typically developed by TEST USERS themselves p.134, 138

19

national anchor norms

An equivalency table for scores on TWO NATIONALLY STANDARDISED TESTS designed to MEASURE THE SAME THING p.138

20

national norms

Norms derived from a STANDARDISED TABLE that was NATIONALLY REPRESENTATIVE of the POPULATION p.137

21

norm

Behaviour that is USUAL, AVERAGE, EXPECTED, or TYPICAL - singular form of NORMS p.128

22

normative sample

Also referred to as a NORM GROUP - a group of people presumed to be REPRESENTATIVE of ALL the people who could take a particular test - their PERFORMANCE DATA on the test may be used as a REFERENCE SOURCE or CONTEXT for EVALUATING INDIVIDUAL test scores - p.128, 134-135

23

norming

the process of DERIVING or CREATING norms p.128

24

norm-referenced testing and assessment

- a method of EVALUATION & a way of deriving MEANING from test scores
- An individuals test score is COMPARED to scores of a group of testtakers on the SAME TEST; contrast with criterion-referenced testing and assessment p.128 (243)

25

overt behaviour

- an observable ACTION or the product of an OBSERVABLE ACTION , including TEST- or ASSESSMENT-RELATED RESPONSES p.119

26

percentage correct

refers to the DISTRIBUTION of RAW SCORES - more specifically - to the NUMBER of ITEMS that were answered correctly MULTIPLIED by 100 and DIVIDED by the TOTAL NUMBER of ITEMS p.135

27

percentile

an expression of the PERCENTAGE of people whose score on a test or measure falls BELOW a particular RAW SCORE p.135

28

programme norms

also known as USER NORMS:
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS based on a group of testtakers in a GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME rather than on norms obtained by formal sampling methods - p.128

29

purposive sampling

- the arbitrary selection of people to be part of a sample because they are THOUGHT to be REPRESENTATIVE of the POPULATION being studied p.132

30

race norming

- the controversial practice of NORMING on the basis of RACE or ETHNIC BACKGROUND p.128

31

sample

a group of people PRESUMED to be REPRESENTATIVE of the POPULATION or UNIVERSE OF PEOPLE being studies or tested p.129

32

sampling

- a general reference to the PROCESS of DEVELOPING a sample - p.129

33

standardisation

refers to test standardisation
- PROCESS OF TEST DEVELOPMENT
- test is administered to a REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE of testtakers under CLEARLY SPECIFIED CONDITIONS - the data is SCORED & INTERPRETED - RESULTS establish a CONTEXT for FUTURE test administrations - p.129

34

standardised test

- a test or measure that has undergone STANDARDISATION p.131

35

state

the TRANSITORY EXHIBITION of some personality trait (i.e., STATE is indicative of a RELATIVELY TEMPORARY PREDISPOSITION.
- as with traits, states also DISTINGUISH one person from another, although STATES are RELATIVELY LESS ENDURING p.118 (398)

36

stratified-random sampling

- the PROCESS of DEVELOPING a sample based on SPECIFIC SUBGROUPS of a population in which EVERY MEMBER has the SAME CHANCE of being included in the sample - p.129

37

stratified sampling

- the PROCESS of DEVELOPING a sample based on SPECIFIC SUBGROUPS of a population - p.129

38

subgroup norms

Norms for any defined group - within a larger group - p.138

39

test standardisation

- PROCESS OF TEST DEVELOPMENT
- test is administered to a REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE of testtakers under CLEARLY SPECIFIED CONDITIONS - the data is SCORED & INTERPRETED - RESULTS establish a CONTEXT for FUTURE test administrations - p.129.129

40

trait

- any DISTINGUISHABLE, relatively ENDURING way in which one individual VARIES from another; contrast with state - ....p.118

41

true score theory

ALSO referred to as the TRUE SCORE MODEL or CLASSICAL TEST THEORY
- system of assumptions about measurement
- the composition of a TEST SCORE is made up of a relatively stable component which is what the test/individual item is designed to measure PLUS a component that is ERROR.
- p.123

42

user norms

also referred to as PROGRAMME NORMS - DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS based on a group of testtakers in a GIVEN PERIOD OF TIME rather than on norms obtained by formal sampling methods - p.128

43

Types of NORMS

age norms, grade norms, national norms, national anchor norms, local norms, norms for a fixed reference group, subgroup norms, and percentile norms. p.135