W1: Introduction Flashcards
What do good definitions of psychopathology include?
Frequency Violation of norms Personal distress Disability or dysfunction Unexpectedness
How does frequency relate to abnormal behaviour?
Abnormal behaviour = infrequent
However some characteristics of individuals strike us as abnormal but are not
We need to be careful not to assume that anything that is infrequent isn’t normal or that disorders are infrequent because majority of people at some point do fit the criteria for MDD
How does a violation of norms fit into abnormal behaviour
Abnormal behaviour violates or threatens social norms
However a violation of norms is not enough to define abnormal behaviour for example drug dealing is a violation of social norms but it is not abnormal psychology
How does personal distress fit into abnormal behaviour
Behaviour is abnormal if it creates distress in the person experiencing it
For example a highly anxious person suffers great distress however some disorders do not psychopaths narcissist etc
How does disability or dysfunction fit into abnormal behaviour
Is the individual impaired in some areas of life for example OCD and phobias can cause this.
The characteristic alone is insufficient to describe abnormal behaviour
How does unexpectedness fit into abnormal behaviour
Anxiety disorder is diagnosed the anxiety is unexpected or disproportionate to the situation
In interviewing it is not just what people say but also what they don’t say
it is important to consider non-verbal signs what are some examples of these
Bodily behaviour such as slouching or fidgeting
Eye behaviour such as avoiding eye contact
Physiological responses such as blushing or shaking
General appearance such as personal hygiene and clothing style
What non-verbal aspects much the client be picking up on from you
Facial expression such a smiling and nodding
Voice related behaviours such as tone pitch and volume
Space how much physical distance there is between the council and the client
and general presentation
What is SOLER?
S: face the client squarely
O: adopt an open posture
L: lean in towards them sometimes
E: maintain good eye contact - but not constantly
R: try to be relaxed in these behaviours
What shows attending behaviour
Eye contact and body language
What shows you are actively listening?
Staying with the topic and not being influenced by bias
What can paraphrasing be used for?
To keep focus for you and the client
What are some common issues from counsellors in interviews?
Mind reading: trying to find out true meaning and disregarding what has been said
Rehearsing: rehearsing what you will say next
Filtering: listening to some things but not others
Judging: judging person based on content of discussion
Advising: providing advice prematurely, without all the information
Placating: too quick to agree
Being too wooden: trying to remember everything - can come across as blunt or lacking empathy
What is the balancing act in interviewing?
Balancing act between being warm and empathetic and maintaining professionalism
What are some types of therapy?
Cognitive behavioural therapy (focus of unit)
Acceptance and commitment therapy (useful when there is something you can’t change e.g. terminal illness)
Emotion focussed therapy (identifying your own as well as recognising others)
Family systems therapy (look not just at the individual but also how group/family combines causing one person to struggle)