Whats the importance of leadership in pharmacy?
- stakes are higher because of the care of people
- necessity of high quality of work performed
- highly technology based & manual labour work methods- complex environment for leader
What is a manager?
- someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished
- universally needed in all organisations- hospital or pharmacy franchise
- top managers- COO, CEO, managing director
- middle managers-department heads, project leaders, store manager
- first line managers- manage non managerial employees, supervisors, team leaders
- non managerial employees
What is management?
- the process of coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively
- efficiency (means) ; getting the most output from the least amount of input LOW WASTAGE --> resource usage
- effectiveness (ends); doing things right, complettly activities so goals are attained HIGH ATTAINMENT --> goal attainment
What are the functions of a manager?
- Planning – Defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate achievements
- Leading - working with and through people to accomplish organisational goals.
- Organising – arranging and structuring work to accomplish organisation’s goals.
- Controlling – monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance
What are some management skills?
• Technical – knowledge of and proficiency in the field, lower level managers
• Human- ability to work well with people in a team or individually, middle managers
• Conceptual – ability to conceptualise complex situations, top managers
What is a leader? & some leadership styles?
Leader-Can influence others and has managerial authority
• Autocratic – dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions and limit employee participation
• Democratic – involves employees in decision making, delegate authority and uses feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees
• Laissez-faire – a leader who generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete work however they see fit
Views on leadership...
• Leader-member exchange theory – Leaders create in-groups and out- groups, those who are in the in-group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover and greater job satisfaction
• Transformational-transactional leadership – transactional leaders lead by utilising social exchanges, transformational leaders inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes (both build on each other)
• Charismatic-visionary leadership- charismatic leaders are enthusiastic, confident leader whose actions and personality influence people to behave in certain ways – visionary leaders articulates and creates a realistic and attractive vision of the future that improves on current status quo
• Team leaders - coach, conflict manager, liaison with external constituencies and trouble shoot
What are the FIVE bases or sources of leadership power?
- Coercive power – ability to punish and control
- Reward power – ability to reward
- Referent power –through person’s desirable resources or personal traits --> someone having “influence over others, acquired from being well-liked or respected by them
- Expert power –based on expertise, special skills or knowledge
- Legitimate power – as a result of a leader’s position in the organisation
What should a leader really do?
- give people reason to come to work, and help them develop a passion for their work
- be loyal
- spend time with people who do the real work in an organisation
- be open and more candid about business practices
What is the most effective leadership style?
- autocractic sometimes = higher performance levels
- democratic styles shown more consistentent and higher employee satisfaction
What are the differences between a leader and a manager?
1. Leaders create a vision, managers create goals
2. Leaders are change agents, managers maintain the status quo
3. Leaders are unique, managers copy
4. Leaders take risks, managers control risk
5. Leaders are in it for the long haul, managers think short-term
6. Leaders grow personally, managers rely on existing, proven skills
7. Leaders build relationships, managers build systems and processes
8. Leaders coach, managers direct
9. Leaders create fans, managers have employees
What is a group? & some examples of groups?
- A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve a specific goal
Command groups – traditional work groups determined by formal authority relationships and depicted on the organisational chart (typically has a line manager and subordinates reporting to line manager)
Cross-functional teams-these bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas in order to come up with solutions to operational problems
Self-managed teams- essentially independent groups that, in addition to doing their operating jobs, take traditional management responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling and performance evaluations
Task forces – temporary groups created to accomplish a specific task, once task is complete group is disbanded
What are the stages of group development?
- Prestage 1- before group is formed
- Stage 1- forming stage, first stage of group development which people join the group and then defined the group’s purpose, structure and leadership
- Stage 2- storming stage, characterised into intra group conflict
- Stage 3- norming stage, characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness
- Stage 4- performing stage, group is fully functional
- Stage 5- adjourning stage, for temporary groups during which the group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
Group structure... & roles
Work groups have an internal structure that shapes members’ behaviour and makes it possible to explain, predict and influence a large portion of individual behaviour within the group as well as the performance of the group itself
• Roles- a role refers to behaviour patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
- Task-related roles
-Roles that help the group focus on the task at hand
- Maintenance- related roles
-Roles that help to maintain good interpersonal relationships within the group
- Self orientated roles
-Roles that may hinder or undermine the team’s progress
What are some examples of role beahaviours?
What are some group structure styles?
-standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members
-As individuals want to be accepted by groups which they belong they are susceptible to conformity pressures
-Group think- a form of conformity in which group members feel extensive pressure to align their opinions with others’
• Status systems
-Prestige grading, position or rank within a group
• Group size
-Size affects overall behaviour of the group
-Social loafing- tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than working individually
-When managers use groups to enhance morale and teamwork, then managers should also find a way to acknowledge individual effort
-Large groups (>12) are good for getting diverse input (find facts)
-Smaller groups more effective at doing something (doing something with facts) – 7 members are found to be most effective for taking action
• Group cohesiveness
-Degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals