Whats the importance of leadership in pharmacy?
- stakes are higher because of the care of people
- necessity of high quality of work performed
- highly technology based & manual labour work methods- complex environment for leader
What is a manager?
- someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organisational goals can be accomplished
- universally needed in all organisations- hospital or pharmacy franchise
- top managers- COO, CEO, managing director
- middle managers-department heads, project leaders, store manager
- first line managers- manage non managerial employees, supervisors, team leaders
- non managerial employees
What is management?
- the process of coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively
- efficiency (means) ; getting the most output from the least amount of input LOW WASTAGE –> resource usage
- effectiveness (ends); doing things right, complettly activities so goals are attained HIGH ATTAINMENT –> goal attainment
What are the functions of a manager?
- Planning – Defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate achievements
- Leading - working with and through people to accomplish organisational goals.
- Organising – arranging and structuring work to accomplish organisation’s goals.
- Controlling – monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance
What are some management skills?
- Technical – knowledge of and proficiency in the field, lower level managers
- Human- ability to work well with people in a team or individually, middle managers
- Conceptual – ability to conceptualise complex situations, top managers
What is a leader? & some leadership styles?
Leader-Can influence others and has managerial authority
• Autocratic – dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions and limit employee participation
• Democratic – involves employees in decision making, delegate authority and uses feedback as an opportunity for coaching employees
• Laissez-faire – a leader who generally gives the group complete freedom to make decisions and complete work however they see fit
Views on leadership…
- Leader-member exchange theory – Leaders create in-groups and out- groups, those who are in the in-group will have higher performance ratings, less turnover and greater job satisfaction
- Transformational-transactional leadership – transactional leaders lead by utilising social exchanges, transformational leaders inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes (both build on each other)
- Charismatic-visionary leadership- charismatic leaders are enthusiastic, confident leader whose actions and personality influence people to behave in certain ways – visionary leaders articulates and creates a realistic and attractive vision of the future that improves on current status quo
- Team leaders - coach, conflict manager, liaison with external constituencies and trouble shoot
What are the FIVE bases or sources of leadership power?
- Coercive power – ability to punish and control
- Reward power – ability to reward
- Referent power –through person’s desirable resources or personal traits –> someone having “influence over others, acquired from being well-liked or respected by them
- Expert power –based on expertise, special skills or knowledge
- Legitimate power – as a result of a leader’s position in the organisation
What should a leader really do?
- give people reason to come to work, and help them develop a passion for their work
- be loyal
- spend time with people who do the real work in an organisation
- be open and more candid about business practices
What is the most effective leadership style?
- autocractic sometimes = higher performance levels
- democratic styles shown more consistentent and higher employee satisfaction
What are the differences between a leader and a manager?
- Leaders create a vision, managers create goals
- Leaders are change agents, managers maintain the status quo
- Leaders are unique, managers copy
- Leaders take risks, managers control risk
- Leaders are in it for the long haul, managers think short-term
- Leaders grow personally, managers rely on existing, proven skills
- Leaders build relationships, managers build systems and processes
- Leaders coach, managers direct
- Leaders create fans, managers have employees
What is a group? & some examples of groups?
- A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve a specific goal
- Command groups – traditional work groups determined by formal authority relationships and depicted on the organisational chart (typically has a line manager and subordinates reporting to line manager)
- Cross-functional teams-these bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas in order to come up with solutions to operational problems
- Self-managed teams- essentially independent groups that, in addition to doing their operating jobs, take traditional management responsibilities such as hiring, planning and scheduling and performance evaluations
- Task forces – temporary groups created to accomplish a specific task, once task is complete group is disbanded
What are the stages of group development?
- Prestage 1- before group is formed
- Stage 1- forming stage, first stage of group development which people join the group and then defined the group’s purpose, structure and leadership
- Stage 2- storming stage, characterised into intra group conflict
- Stage 3- norming stage, characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness
- Stage 4- performing stage, group is fully functional
- Stage 5- adjourning stage, for temporary groups during which the group members are concerned with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
Group structure… & roles
Work groups have an internal structure that shapes members’ behaviour and makes it possible to explain, predict and influence a large portion of individual behaviour within the group as well as the performance of the group itself
• Roles- a role refers to behaviour patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
- Task-related roles
- Roles that help the group focus on the task at hand
- Maintenance- related roles
- Roles that help to maintain good interpersonal relationships within the group
- Self orientated roles
- Roles that may hinder or undermine the team’s progress
What are some examples of role beahaviours?
What are some group structure styles?
-standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members
-As individuals want to be accepted by groups which they belong they are susceptible to conformity pressures
-Group think- a form of conformity in which group members feel extensive pressure to align their opinions with others’
• Status systems
-Prestige grading, position or rank within a group
• Group size
-Size affects overall behaviour of the group
-Social loafing- tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than working individually
-When managers use groups to enhance morale and teamwork, then managers should also find a way to acknowledge individual effort
-Large groups (>12) are good for getting diverse input (find facts)
-Smaller groups more effective at doing something (doing something with facts) – 7 members are found to be most effective for taking action
• Group cohesiveness
-Degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals