WBC Pathology I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WBC Pathology I Deck (100):
1

Histology morphology of the myeloblast:

Youngest
Scanty cytoplasm
Nucleolus

2

How is the promyelocyte differentiated from the myeloblast?

Primary granules are present

3

Immature WBC with specific granules:

Myelocyte

4

First immature WBC to appear in the peripheral smear; equivalent to a reticulocyte:

Intermediate cell

5

Most common cause of agranulocytosis:

Drug toxicity

6

Pathogenesis of leukopenias:

Inadequate or ineffective granulopoiesis
Increased destruction
Splenic sequestration

7

Kotsmann syndrome is:

Congenital inability to produce neutrophils

8

Peripheral WBC count is influenced by:

Size of precursor storage pools
Rate of cell release
Proportion of cells in the marginal pool
Rate of cell extravasation

9

Types of benign WBC proliferation in the bone marrow:

Leukocytosis
Leukemoid Reaction

10

Causes of neutrophilia:

Bacterial infection
Tissue necrosis
Pyogenic infection

11

Causes of lymphocytosis:

Chronic infection
Fungal, viral, immunologic reaction

12

Causes of eosinophilia:

Asthma
Allergy
Parasitic infection

13

Causes of monocytosis:

Chronic infection
Collagen disease

14

Basophilia is often indicative of:

Myeloproliferative disorder

15

PBS changes during a leukemoid reaction:

Toxic granules (Dohle bodies)
No blasts, but stab cells present

16

B-cells are located in what area of the lymph node?

Follicular area

17

T-cells are located in what area of the lymph node?

Parafollicular area

18

Acute lymphadenitis in the cervical region indicates infection of:

Submandibular or neck area

19

Infection in the extremities manifests as acute lymphadenitis in which regions?

Axillary and inguinal regions

20

Three types of chronic lymphadenitis:

Follicular Hyperplasia
Parafollicular/Paracortical Hyperplasia
Sinus histiocytosis/reticular hyperplasia

21

In follicular hyperplasia, activated B-cells are located in the ___ while inactivated B cells are located in the ___ area:

germinal center; thin marginal

22

Two zones of germinal centers:

Centroblast (dark)
Centrocytes (light)

23

B-memory cells originate in the:

Centrocytes of the germinal center

24

Causes of follicular hyperplasia:

Rheumatoid arthritis
Toxoplasmosis
Early HIV

25

Features favoring a non-neoplastic hyperplasia:

Preservation of LN architecture
Variation in follicular shape and size
Mitotic figures and phagocytic macrophages

26

Characteristic cells in parafollicular hyperplasia:

Immunoblasts

27

Causes of parafollicular hyperplasia:

Drugs
IM
Vaccines

28

Hypertrophy of these cells are characteristic of sinus histiocytosis/reticular hyperplasia:

Lymphatic endothelial cells
Increase in macrophages

29

Structures indicative of follicular hyperplasia, located in the centrocytes:

Tingible bodies (phagocytosed B-cells)

30

Categories of Neoplastic proliferative states:

Lymphoid Neoplasm
Plasma cell dyscracias
Myeloid neoplasms
Histiocytoses

31

Originating cells of lymphoid neoplasm:

T-cells, B-cells, NK cells

32

3 categories of myeloid neoplasms:

Acute myeloid leukemia
Myelodysplastic syndrome
Chronic myeloproliferative disorders

33

Histiocytoses is a proliferation of these cells:

Macrophages and dendritic cells

34

Sinus histiocytosis is prominent in which cancers:

LN draining cancers (e.g. breast carcinoma)

35

Precursor B-cells cancers:

B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma (ALL)

36

Precursor T-cell cancers:

T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

37

Peripheral B-cell cancers:

Small Lymphocytic Leukemia
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Follicular Lymphoma

38

Peripheral T-cell cancers:

T-cell lymphoma
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

39

Seen in all lymphocytic tumors, distinguishes from carcinoma:

CD 45 (Leukocyte Common Antigen)

40

Monocyte/macrophage antigens:

CD 14
CD 64

41

Stem cell antigen:

CD 34

42

Markers are usually ___ in B-cell lymphomas and ___ in T-cell lymphomas:

high; low

43

Antigens seen in Hodkin's lymphoma:

CD 15
CD 30

44

Pan-B marker:

CD 19

45

Peripheral T-cell marker:

CD 3

46

Precursor T-cell markers:

CD 1, 2, 5, 7

47

Germinal center B-cell marker:

CD 10

48

Characteristics of lymphoid tumors:

Monoclonal population
Mostly B cells (90%)
Unique clinical presentations
Immune abnormalities
Mimic normal counterpart behavior
Protective Ig breakdown

49

Symptoms of lymphadenopathy:

Multiple, painless, large, COALESCENT lymph nodes

50

Lymphoid tumors are grossly ____ instead of ____, as in normal LN:

fleshy, nodular, white;
smooth and tannish

51

Main identification of precursor B/T cell neoplasms:

+ lymphoblasts
+ TdT

52

Pre T-cell neoplasms usual manifest clinically as:

mediastinal mass

53

Cancer typically affecting adolescent males:

Acute lymphoblastic lymphoma

54

Cancer typically affecting 60 y/o males:

Small lymphocytic lymphoma
Mantle cell lymphoma

55

Difference in WBC count between SLL and CLL:

Decreased in SLL
Increased in CLL

56

SLL and CLL may spread from __ to __ and finally to __:

Lymph node; bone marrow; blood

57

What is SLL Richter syndrome:

Transformation of B-cell to prolymphocytes

58

Complication of SLL:

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

59

Most common chromosomal abnormality in SLL:

Trisomy 12

60

CD markers present in SLL/CLL:

CD 19
CD 20
CD 23
CD 5

61

Characteristic histological finding of SLL/CLL:

Smudge cells (disrupted tumor cells)

62

Cancer affecting male and female middle aged individuals:

Follicular lymphomas

63

Genetic abnormality in follicular lymphoma:

t(14:18) bcl-2 protooncogene (apoptosis)

64

Distinguish histologically between follicular lympoma and follicular hyperplasia:

Well-defined germinal centers cannot be observed in follicular lymphoma

65

Germinal centers of follicular lymphoma are absent ___:

tingible bodies

66

Immunophenotype of follicular lymphoma:

CD 10
CD 19
CD 20
bcl-2 protein

67

If c-MYC gene is present, follicular lymphoma progresses to:

DLBL

68

Cancer with biphasic age profile:

Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

69

Symptoms of DLBL:

Rapidly enlarging mass SINGLE nodal or extranodal site

70

DLBL genetic abnormality:

t(14:18) bcl 6

71

Immunophenotype of DLBL:

CD 19
CD 20
CD 10

72

Cancer common in children and young adults:

Burkitt's lymphoma

73

Histology of Burkitt's lymphoma:

Round cells interspersed with macrophages

74

Immunophenotype of Burkitt's lymphoma:

CD 10
CD 19
CD 20
bcl-6
IgM

75

Burkitt's genetic abnormality:

t(8:14) of c-MYC

76

Pattern characteristic of Burkitt's:

Starry sky appearance

77

Characteristic of marginal zone lymphoma:

Arise from chronic inflammatory disorder
Remains localized
May regress if treated very early

78

Genetic abnormaity in marginal zone lymphoma:

t(11:18) or t(14:18)

79

Immunophenotype of Mantle cell lymphoma:

CD 19
CD 20
CD 5
CD 23

80

Genetic abnormality of mantle cell lymphoma:

t(11:14), increased cyclin D1

81

Histological picture of mantle cell lymphoma:

homogenous small lymphocytes surround compressed germinal center

82

This distinguishes Sezary syndrome from mycosis fungoides clinically:

Sezary syndrome is more like an exfoliative erythroderma w/o tumor phase

83

3 clinical stages of mycosis fungoides:

Inflammatory phase
Plaque phase
Tumor phase

84

Symptoms of NK cell lymphoma:

Destructive sinus masses in nasopharynx, nose, oral cavity

85

Cancers associated with EBV:

Burkitt's lymphoma
NK cell lymphoma
Hodgkin's lymphoma

86

Biopsy in NK cell lymphoma would show:

(-) malignancy
(+) necrotic tissues

87

Genetic abnormality in anaplastic large cell lymphoma:

2p23 ALK gene

88

Hallmark cells in anaplastic large cell lymphoma:

Horseshoe-shaped nuclei and voluminous cytoplasm

89

CD4 T-cell cancers:

Mycosis fungoides
Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia

90

CD8 T-cell cancers:

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

91

Only lymphoma directly associated with virus:

Adult T-cell lymphoma (HTLV-1)

92

Characteristic of T-cell lymphoma:

Skin lesions
Hypercalcemia
Clover leaf or flower cells
Severe anaplasia

93

Characteristic of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

RS cells (only tumoral cells)
Polymorphic cells
Single axial LN chain affected
Spread is contiguous
Paravertebral nodes are affected
Rarely extranodal

94

Hodgkin's Lymphoma is usually found in ___, except for the __ type:

males; nodular

95

Subtypes of Hodgkins lymphoma:

Nodular sclerosis
Mixed cellularity
Lymphocyte predominance
Lymphocyte depletion
Lymphocyte rich

96

Most common Hodgkins lymphoma subtype:

Nodular sclerosis

97

Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's has which RS variants?

Lacunar cell and collagen band

98

Mixed cellularity Hodgkins has which RS variants?

Classic and mononuclear RC cells

99

Hallmark cell of Lymphocyte predominance Hodgkins:

Popcorn cells (lymphohistolic)

100

In Hodgin's lymphoma, the more lymphocytes present, the ___ the prognosis:

better