WBC Pathology II Flashcards Preview

Pathology > WBC Pathology II > Flashcards

Flashcards in WBC Pathology II Deck (63):
1

Conditions often accompanying leukemia:

Thrombocytopenia
Anemia

2

Marked increase in WBC count is seen in ___ leukemia (chronic or acute):

Chronic (slight increase in acute)

3

Blast cells are greater than 20% of WBC count in ___ leukemia (chronic or acute):

Acute

4

Type of leukemia typically affecting those below 15 yrs old:

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

5

In ALL, the block in B-cell maturation occurs between the ___ and ___ stages:

Prolymphocyte and lymphocyte

6

Factors associated with poor prognosis of ALL:

Less than 2 y/o
Adolescent or adult pt.
Peripheral blast cells greater than 100,000
Philadelphia chromosome

7

Typical chromosomal abnormalities of ALL:

Hyperploidy, hypoploidy
t(12:21)

8

FAB classification of ALL:

L1 - Homogenous
L2 - Heterogenous
L3 - Large lymphocytes

9

Bigger lymphocytes are associated with a ___ prognosis:

poorer

10

Immunohistochemistry of ALL:

CD 10
CD 19
CD 20
IgM heavy chain
TdT positive

11

S/Sx specific for ALL:

Testicular enlargement
Meningeal involvement

12

Affected age group and primary symptom of hairy cell leukemia:

Middle aged males; massive splenomegaly

13

Laboratory finding in hairy cell leukemia:

(+) tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)

14

Bone marrow findings in hairy cell leukemia:

Dry tap due to reticulin network
Fried egg or honeycomb appearance

15

Myeloid disorders:

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Myelodysplastic syndrome
Chronic Myeloproliferative disorders

16

Chonic Myeloproliferative Disorders:

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Polycythemia Vera
Essential Thrombocytosis
Myelofibrosis

17

Majority of AML cases are in the ___ range, with a peak at __:

30-50 y/o; 60 y/o

18

t(8:21); inv (16) indicates what prognosis in AML?

Good prognosis

19

t(15:17) (the RARA gene) indicates what prognosis for AML?

Intermediate prognosis

20

t(11q23) indicates what prognosis in AML?

Poor prognosis

21

This situation is associated with very poor prognosis in AML

AML that developed from MDS
Deletions or monosomy in chromosomes 5,7

22

Retinoic acid is responsible for development of ___ to ____:

promyelocyte to myelocyte

23

RARA deficiency is associated with which type of AML?

M3 (abundance of promyelocytes)

24

Nonspecific esterase stains for:

Monoblasts

25

Myeloperoxidase stains for___ and is positive in___:

Myeloblasts; AML

26

PAS stains for___ and is positive in ___:

Lymphoblasts; ALL

27

Distinguish AML from ALL in the peripheral smear:

Auer rods present
Abudant cytoplasm
Abundant granules

28

DIC is a manifestation of which type of AML?

M3

29

Which cells proliferate in M4 and M5 AML?

Monocytes

30

Common clinical manifestations in M1 and M2 AML:

Chloroma
Granulocytic sarcoma

31

MDS is typically seen in which age group:

the elderly (70+)

32

MDS is a ___ disorder associated with ____:

stem cell; ineffective hematopoiesis

33

Cellular abnormalities in MDS:

Ringed sideroblasts
Megaloblastoid maturation
Pawn ball megakaryocytes
Nuclear budding
Abnormal granulation
Pseudo Pelger-Heut cells
Myeloblasts

34

Myeloproliferative disorders usually involve neoplastic transformation of:

Multipotent myelogenous progenitor cells

35

MPD abnormalities are due to mutated ___:

tyrosine kinase

36

Characteristics of MPD:

Proliferative drive in bone marrow
Extramedullary hematopoiesis
Bone marrow fibrosis
Transformation to acute leukemia

37

No block in stem cell maturation is seen in:

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

38

Chromosomal abnormality in CML:

t(9:22) ABL to BCR

39

Laboratory diagnosis of CML:

Greater than 100k WBC
(-) alkaline phosphatase
Philadelphia chromosome
Thrombocytosis

40

CML involves neoplastic transformation of:

Pluripotent granulocytic stem cell

41

PBS in essential thrombosis shows:

Giant platelets, greater than 600k

42

Symptom of essential thrombosis:

Erythromelalgia

43

The end stage of most proliferative disorders:

Myelofibrosis

44

Treatment for CML:

Imatinib (BCR-ABL inhibitor)

45

Symptoms of myelofibrosis:

Progressive anemia
Abdominal enlargement
Hyperuricemia
Gout

46

PBS in myelofibrosis:

leukoerythroblastosis (teardrop shaped cells)

47

Types of myeloma:

Multiple myeloma (common)
Solitary Myeloma

48

Type of solitary myeloma that may progress to multiple myeloma:

Osseous

49

Plasma cell dyscrasias:

Myeloma
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
Heavy chain disease
Monoclonal gammopathy

50

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia features increased B-cells resulting in increased ___, resulting in increased blood ___:

IgM; viscosity

51

These may be increased in the blood of multiple myeloma:

IgG (55%)
Other Ig (25%)
Bence Jones protein (20%)

52

Appearance of X-ray in multiple myeloma:

Soap bubble appearance

53

Seen in bone marrow biopsy of multiple myeloma:

Replacement of marrow cells with:
Russell bodies (globular inclusions)
Dutcher bodies (nuclear cells

54

Complications of multiple myeloma:

Myeloma nephrosis
Myeloma nephropathy
Systemic amyloidosis

55

S/Sx of multiple myeloma:

Prominent bone pain
Hypercalcemia
Bacterial infection
Renal insufficiency

56

Lab diagnosis of multiple myeloma:

(+) Bence jones protein
Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Increased serum Ig
M protein spike in blood and urine

57

Most benign histiocytosis:

Eosinophilic Granuloma (unifocal histiocytosis)

58

Hand Schuller Histiocytosis is seen in ___:

young children

59

Triad of Hand Schuller symptoms:

Bone defects
Diabetes insipidus
Exophthalmos

60

Malignant type of histiocytosis:

Litterer Siwe (multifocal multisystem histiocytosis)

61

Sx of Litterer Siwe Histiocytosis:

Fever
Otitis media or mastoiditis
Trunk and scalp eczema
Spleen, liver, LN enlargement
Bone lesions

62

Thymoma is a tumor of the:

Thymic epithelial cells

63

S/Sx of thymoma:

Compression of mediastinum
Myasthenia Gravis