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Flashcards in WE3 Deck (300):
1

The ___________ is located in the cochlea of the inner ear.

organ of corti

1

Axons arising from the ____________ nuclei project to the cerebellar cortex by passing through the right middle cerebellar peduncle.

left pontine

2

The _______________ region of the cerebellum modulates motor movements of the trunk.

midline

3

The __________ incisors are typically innervated by the anterior superior alveolar nerves.

upper

3

The ____________ typically drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess of the nasal cavity.

sphenoid sinus

3

The ___________ nerve innervates all the muscles of the palate except for the tensor palatini.

vagus

3

The utricle is the most important end organ for our sense of ____________ acceleration.

linear horizontal

3

The optic nerve contains the axons of the ganglion cells of the __________.

retina

4

The ___________ muscle attaches in part to the stapes (ossicle) and is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve.

stapedius

4

The thyrohyoid (geniohyoid) muscle functions to _______ the hyoid and larynx and is innervated by a branch of ventral ramus C1.

elevate

4

The vagus nerve innervates all the muscles of the ________ except for the tensor palatini.

palate

4

Axons arising from the lateral geniculate nucleus project to the __________________ of the occipital lobe.

primary visual cortex

4

The ___________ muscle is a derivative of the second pharyngeal arch.

stapedius

4

The thyroid gland initially develops as a diverticulum at foramen cecum a _________ structure.

tongue

5

The __________ and __________ communicate through the auditory tube.

nasal pharynx middle ear

6

The gag reflex tests the ________ function of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the ________ function of the vagus nerve.

sensory motor

6

The stylopharyngeus muscle enters the pharynx by passing between the _______ and ________ constrictor muscles.

superior middle

6

The ___________ veins interconnect the venous drainage of the face and orbit with the cavernous sinus.

ophthalmic

6

The pupillary reflex tests the parasympathetic motor function of the _______ cranial nerve.

IIIrd

6

The VA/VL nuclei of the thalamus are the specific relay nuclei for the motor system involving the __________ and _____________.

cerebellum basal ganglia

6

The maxilla forms from fusion of the ___________________ and distal zones of the paired maxillary processes.

bilateral medial nasal processes

7

__________ sensations from the mucosa covering the tip of the tongue are conveyed to the central nervous system over the axons of the lingual nerve.

fine touch

8

The ______________ are derived from the first (mandibular) pharyngeal (branchial) arch.

muscles of mastication

8

The first ______________ positioned adjacent to the 2nd pharyngeal cleft contributes to the formation of the external ear.

pharyngeal cleft

9

The auriculotemporal nerve a sensory branch of the mandibular nerve passes ________ to the lateral pterygoid muscle and ________ to the neck of the mandible.

medial posterior

9

The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is the only _____________ (movement) of the vocal folds.

abductor

9

somatosensory system.

VPM

10

The laryngeal mucosa is inferior to the vocal folds is innervated by the __________________.

laryngeal nerve

11

The upper molars and their associated buccal mucosa are innervated by the ______ nerves.

PSA

11

The _________ is derived from the first second third and fourth pharyngeal arches and myoblasts from the occipital somites.

tongue

13

The _____________ muscle is the only abductor (movement) of the vocal folds.

posterior cricoarytenoid

14

The output of the globus pallidus controls motor movements by inhibition of the motor nuclei (VA/VL) of the ___________.

thalamus

15

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) is the region of the pituitary gland that contains the axon terminals of neurons in the hypothalamus that secrete _____________ or _____________ into the bloodstream.

oxytocin vasopressin

16

The ____________ reflex tests the sensory function of the glossopharyngeal nerve and the motor function of the vagus nerve.

gag

16

The ___________ dural venous sinus is positioned along the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli.

transverse

16

The posterior fibers of the temporalis muscle function in _______ of the mandible.

retrusion

16

The stapedius muscle is a derivative of the _________ pharyngeal arch.

second

17

The frontal lacrimal and trochlear nerves all traverse the ____________ superior to the annular (common tendinous) ring.

superior orbital fissure

17

The occipital nodes typically receive the direct lymphatic drainage of the skin overlying the ___________ of the trapezius muscle.

superior attatchment

17

The organ of corti is located in the ____________ of the inner ear.

cochlea

19

The nerve of the pterygoid canal enters the _______________ fossa by traversing the pterygoid canal.

pterygopalatine fossa

20

As it emerges from the ___________ the oculomotor nerve typically passes between the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries.

interpenduncular fossa

20

The superior and inferior colliculi are located in the tectum the __________ aspect of the midbrain.

dorsal

20

The malleus and incus (ossicles) are both derivatives of the ________________.

pharyngeal arch

21

The cell bodies of the postganglionic parasympathetic neurons innervating the parotid gland are located in the _______ ganglion.

otic

22

The temporalis masseter and medial pterygoid muscles all function to _____________ (movement) the mandible.

elevate

22

The __________ and ___________ nerves innervate the mucosa of the hard palate.

greater palatine nasopalatine

22

The crista ampullaris is a receptor structure located in the semicircular canals of the __________ portion of the temporal bone.

petrous

23

The inferior alveolar artery is typically a direct branch of the _________ artery.

maxillary

23

The ______________ and thymus are derivatives of the 3rd pharyngeal pouch.

parathyroid glands

24

The transverse _______________ is positioned along the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli.

dural venous sinus

24

The zygomatic arch and the ____________ form the lateral boundary of the infratemporal fossa.

ramus of the mandible

25

The temporalis masseter and medial pterygoid muscles all function to elevate (movement) the ____________.

mandible

25

The majority of the commissural axons passing from one cerebral hemisphere to the contralateral cerebral hemisphere pass through the _______________.

corpus callosum

25

The primary motor cortex is located in the __________ gyrus of the frontal lobe.

precentral

25

Pharyngeal ____________ are covered by ectoderm and positioned between adjacent pharyngeal arches.

clefts

26

The gag reflex tests the sensory function of the __________ nerve and the motor function of the _________ nerve.

glossopharyngeal vagus

26

The _______________ is located in the temporal lobe.

primary auditory cortex

27

The frontal lacrimal and trochlear nerves all traverse the superior orbital fissure superior to the ______________.

annular (common tendinous) ring

29

The majority of the commissural axons passing from one cerebral hemisphere to the __________ cerebral hemisphere pass through the corpus callosum.

contralateral

30

The posterior fibers of the temporalis muscle function in retrusion of the _________.

mandible

31

The __________ nodes typically receive the direct lymphatic drainage of the skin overlying the superior attachment of the trapezius muscle.

occipital

32

The parathyroid glands and _____________ are derivatives of the 3rd pharyngeal pouch.

thymus

33

As it emerges from the interpeduncular fossa the __________ nerve typically passes between the posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries.

oculomotor

34

The primary afferent neuron (cell body) for ___________ sensation is located in the spiral ganglion.

auditory

35

The pupillary reflex tests the _______________ function of the IIIrd cranial nerve.

parasympathetic motor

36

The upper compartment of the TMJ is classified (synovial) as a ______________ joint where as the lower compartment is a hinge joint.

gliding (plane)

37

The _________ lacrimal and trochlear nerves all traverse the superior orbital fissure superior to the annular (common tendinous) ring.

frontal

37

The _________ of the globus pallidus controls motor movements by inhibition of the motor nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus.

output

39

The posterior division of the retromandibular and the posterior auricular vein are the two primary tributaries of the ________________ vein.

external jugular

39

The reticular activating system is located in the _____________ a major brain subdivision.

brainstem

41

The _______________ is positioned between the medial pterygoid and the superior constrictor.

parapharyngeal space

42

The hypoglossal nerve emerges from the medulla between the _______ and the _______.

pyramid olive

42

Coordination of emotional responses is the function of the ___________ circuit involving the amygdala whereas memory consolidation involves the hippocampus.

limbic

43

The branches of the middle meningeal artery are typically positioned _______ to the pterion.

medial

43

The first pharyngeal cleft positioned adjacent to the 2nd pharyngeal cleft contributes to the formation of the ____________.

external ear

44

The posterior division of the ____________ and the posterior auricular vein are the two primary tributaries of the external jugular vein.

retromandibular

44

The medial geniculate nucleus is the thalamus relay nucleus for the ____________ system.

auditory

44

The tongue is derived from the _________ __________ __________ and __________ pharyngeal arches and myoblasts from the occipital somites.

first second third fourth

45

The inferior alveolar nerve provides ________ innervation to the molars of the lower jaw.

sensory

45

The cell bodies of the second order neurons of the __________ pathway for the head are located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

pain and temperature

46

The cell bodies of the second order neurons of the pain and temperature pathway for the head are located in the _________ nucleus.

trigeminal

47

The superior oblique muscle of the eye receives its _________ innervation from branches of the ophthalmic nerve.

sensory

47

The vagus nerve innervates all the muscles of the palate except for the _____________.

tensor palatini

47

The ___________________ is the region of the pituitary gland that contains the axon terminals of neurons in the hypothalamus that secrete oxytocin or vasopressin into the bloodstream.

neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

48

The longus colli muscle extends from ___________ to _________ and functions in flexion of the neck.

vertebral body vertebral body

49

The anterior inferior aspect of the nasal septum typically receives its blood supply from branches of the sphenopalatine greater palatine anterior ethmoidal and _________ arteries.

facial

51

The cell bodies of the postganglionic parasympathetic neurons innervating the ________ gland are located in the otic ganglion.

parotid

51

The output of the globus pallidus controls motor movements by ___________ of the motor nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus.

inhibition

53

The primary afferent neuron (cell body) for auditory sensation is located in the ______________.

spiral ganglion

54

The anterior inferior aspect of the nasal septum typically receives its blood supply from branches of the sphenopalatine ______________ anterior ethmoidal and facial arteries.

greater palatine

54

The _________________ is located in the brainstem a major brain subdivision.

reticular activating system

55

The nasal pharynx and middle ear communicate through the __________.

auditory tube

57

The lingual nerve innervates the mucosa overlying the ___________ of the oral cavity.

floor

59

The _________ and the ramus of the mandible form the lateral boundary of the infratemporal fossa.

zygomatic arch

60

Axons projecting from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the thalamus pass through the _________ cerebellar peduncle.

superior

61

The __________ forms from fusion of the bilateral medial nasal processes and distal zones of the paired maxillary processes.

maxilla

62

The cell bodies of the ________ neurons of the pain and temperature pathway for the head are located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

second order

63

The occipital nodes typically receive the direct lymphatic drainage of the skin overlying the superior attachment of the _________ muscle.

trapezius

64

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) is the region of the pituitary gland that contains the axon terminals of neurons in the _____________ that secrete oxytocin or vasopressin into the bloodstream.

hypothalamus

66

The hypothalamus a brain structure involved in the regulation of body weight sleep and sexual behavior is a subdivision of the _________________ (region of the brain).

diencephalon

67

The _____________ of the scalp and the superior sagittal sinus are interconnected through a series of emissary veins.

venous drainage

68

Superficial cerebral veins are located in the CSF filled _________________.

subarachnoid space

68

The _____________ a cerebral structure involved in the coordination of emotional responses is located in the anterior-medial aspect of the temporal lobe.

amygdala

69

The __________ and putamen are positioned directly lateral to the internal capsule.

globus pallidus

70

Axons projecting from the inferior olive to the cerebellar cortex pass through the _____________ cerebellar peduncle.

inferior

71

The midline region of the cerebellum modulates ________ movements of the trunk.

motor

72

The facial nerve is closely associated with the posterior wall of the _____________.

middle ear

73

The globus pallidus and putamen are positioned directly _________ to the internal capsule.

lateral

75

Axons projecting to and from the hippocampus a structure critical to the formation of _____________ traverse the fornix.

new memories

76

The majority of the _____________ axons passing from one cerebral hemisphere to the contralateral cerebral hemisphere pass through the corpus callosum.

commissural

77

The ___________ reflex tests the sensory function of the Vth cranial nerve and the motor function of the VIIth cranial nerve.

corneal (blink)

78

Axons projecting from the ___________ to the thalamus pass through the superior cerebellar peduncle.

deep cerebellar nuclei

79

The superior and inferior colliculi are located in the tectum the dorsal aspect of the ______________.

midbrain

80

The posterior division of the retromandibular and the ____________ vein are the two primary tributaries of the external jugular vein.

posterior auricular

82

The posterior fibers of the __________ muscle function in retrusion of the mandible.

temporalis

84

As it emerges from the interpeduncular fossa the oculomotor nerve typically passes between the ___________ and _____________ arteries.

posterior cerebral superior cerebral

85

The __________ is the parasympathetic root of the pterygopalatine ganglion.

greater petrosal nerve

86

The lingual nerve innervates the mucosa overlying the floor of the _________.

oral cavity

88

The ____________ nerve traverses the cavernous sinus adjacent to the _________ artery.

abducens internal carotid artery

88

The crista ampullaris is a receptor structure located in the ____________ of the petrous portion of the temporal bone.

semicircular canals

89

The upper molars and their associated ________ mucosa are innervated by the PSA nerves.

buccal

91

Axons projecting from the thalamus to the ___________ must pass through the internal capsule.

cerebral cortex

91

The output of the globus pallidus controls _________ movements by inhibition of the motor nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus.

motor

91

The levator palatini muscle is a derivative of the _________ pharyngeal arch.

fourth

92

_____________ of the tongue is a function of the genioglossus muscle.

protrusion

92

The muscles of mastication are derived from the first (mandibular) ____________ arch.

pharyngeal (brachial)

93

The _______ nerve is closely associated with the posterior wall of the middle ear.

facial

95

The _____________ is a receptor structure located in the semicircular canals of the petrous portion of the temporal bone.

crista ampullaris

97

The globus pallidus and putamen are positioned directly lateral to the __________.

internal capusle

99

The upper incisors are typically innervated by the ________________ nerves.

anterior superior alveolar

99

Pharyngeal clefts are covered by ectoderm and positioned between adjacent _____________.

pharyngeal arches

100

The branches of the ____________ artery are typically positioned medial to the pterion.

middle meningeal

102

The _____________________ function during the side-to-side grinding motion of the mandible.

medial and lateral pterygoid muscles

103

The ____________ artery is typically a direct branch of the maxillary artery.

inferior alveolar

103

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) is the region of the ____________ that contains the axon terminals of neurons in the hypothalamus that secrete oxytocin or vasopressin into the bloodstream.

pituitary gland

103

___________ hematomas are typically associated with a laceration of one or more of the meningeal arteries whereas subdural hematomas are associated with tears of the _____________ veins.

epidural superficial cerebral

105

Pharyngeal clefts are covered by ___________ and positioned between adjacent pharyngeal arches.

ectoderm

107

The anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine may be torn during a severe hyperextension (movement) of the _______.

neck

108

The temporalis ___________ and medial pterygoid muscles all function to elevate (movement) the mandible.

masseter

110

The transverse dural venous sinus is positioned along the attached margin of the ________________.

tentorium cerebelli

110

The ____________ initially develops as a diverticulum at foramen cecum a tongue structure.

thyroid gland

112

The _______ nerve innervates the mucosa overlying the floor of the oral cavity.

lingual

113

The VA/VL nuclei of the thalamus are the specific relay nuclei for the ____________ system involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

motor

114

The tectorial membrane is continuous with the ___________ ligament of the vertebral column.

posterior longitudinal

115

Axons arising from the left pontine nuclei project to the cerebellar cortex by passing through the _____________ cerebellar peduncle.

right middle

117

The mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric are both derived from the ___________ pharyngeal arch.

first

118

The frontal ________ and trochlear nerves all traverse the superior orbital fissure superior to the annular (common tendinous) ring.

lacrimal

119

The parathyroid glands and thymus are derivatives of the _______ pharyngeal pouch.

third

120

Protrusion of the ______________ is a function of the genioglossus muscle.

tongue

121

The VPM nucleus of the __________ is the specific relay nucleus for the trigeminal somatosensory system.

thalamus

123

Fine touch sensations from the mucosa covering the tip of the tongue are conveyed to the central nervous system over the axons of the _________ nerve.

lingual

124

The muscles of mastication are derived from the _________ pharyngeal (branchial) arch.

first (mandibular)

126

The mylohyoid muscle forms the floor of the _________ cavity.

oral

127

The _____________ with its associated tympanic plexus is located in the medial wall of the middle ear.

promontory

128

The _________ lip drains directly into the submental lymph nodes.

central lower

130

The inferior alveolar nerve provides sensory innervation to the _____ of the lower jaw.

molars

132

The ____________________ are located in the tectum the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.

superior and inferior colliculi

134

The auriculotemporal nerve a sensory branch of the ________ nerve passes medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle and posterior to the neck of the mandible.

mandibular

134

Axons projecting from the __________ to the cerebellar cortex pass through the inferior cerebellar peduncle.

inferior olive

135

Abduction depression and intorsion of the eye are all functions of the _____________ muscle.

superior oblique

135

The hypoglossal nerve emerges from the ____________ between the pyramid and the _______________.

medulla olive

136

The _______ is the most important end organ for our sense of linear horizontal acceleration.

utricle

136

The medial geniculate nucleus is the __________ relay nucleus for the auditory system.

thalamus

137

Coordination of emotional responses is the function of the limbic circuit involving the _______________ whereas memory consolidation involves the hippocampus.

amygdala

138

The frontal lacrimal and ________ nerves all traverse the superior orbital fissure superior to the annular (common tendinous) ring.

trochlear

139

The __________ and ____________ (ossicles) are both derivatives of the pharyngeal arch.

malleus incus

141

The laryngeal mucosa is __________ to the vocal folds and is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

inferior

142

The sphenoid sinus typically drains into the _________ of the nasal cavity.

sphenoethmoidal recess

143

The facial nerve is closely associated with the __________ wall of the middle ear.

posterior

145

Most of the brainstem lower motor neurons receive bilateral corticobulbar afferents. Which cranial nerve nucleus (or subdivision) receives only contralateral corticobulbar afferents?

Lower facial nucleus

147

Proximal to the ________________ the oculomotor and trochlear nerves are positioned in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus.

superior orbital fissure

148

Proximal to the superior orbital fissure the oculomotor and trochlear nerves are positioned in the lateral wall of the ________ sinus.

cavernous

149

The auriculotemporal nerve a sensory branch of the mandibular nerve passes medial to the _________________ and posterior to the ______________.

lateral pterygoid muscle neck of the mandible

150

The tongue is derived from the first second third and fourth pharyngeal arches and myoblasts from the ______________.

occipital somites

151

The _____________ is formed by the fusion of the right and left palatine shelves.

secondary palate

153

The __________________ is located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe.

primary motor cortex

154

The _____________ is continuous with the posterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column.

tectorial membrane

156

The meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve re-enters the skull by traversing the ________________.

foramen spinosum

157

The midline region of the ___________ modulates motor movements of the trunk.

cerebellum

158

The parapharyngeal space is positioned between the __________ and the superior constrictor.

medial pterygoid

160

The mylohyoid and ________________ are both derived from the first pharyngeal arch.

anterior belly of the digastric

161

The __________ of the temporalis muscle function in retrusion of the mandible.

posterior fibers

163

The promontory with its associated ___________ is located in the medial wall of the middle ear.

tympanic plexus

165

The _________________ enters the pterygopalatine fossa by traversing the pterygoid canal.

nerve of the pterygoid canal

166

Axons projecting from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the _________ pass through the superior cerebellar peduncle.

thalamus

167

Axons projecting from the inferior olive to the _____________ pass through the inferior cerebellar peduncle.

cerebellar cortex

168

The primary motor cortex is located in the precentral gyrus of the __________ lobe.

frontal

169

The greater petrosal nerve is the ________________ root of the pterygopalatine ganglion.

parasympathetic

170

The maxilla forms from fusion of the bilateral medial nasal processes and distal zones of the paired ____________.

maxillary processes

171

The ___________________ for auditory sensation is located in the spiral ganglion.

primary afferent neuron (cell body)

173

Axons arising from the _____________ nucleus project to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe.

lateral geniculate

174

The corneal (blink) reflex tests the ___________ function of the Vth cranial nerve and the __________ function of the VIIth cranial nerve.

sensory motor

175

The stapedius muscle attaches in part to the stapes (ossicle) and is innervated by a branch of the _________ nerve.

facial

176

The branches of the middle meningeal artery are typically positioned medial to the ___________.

pterion

177

The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus contains the neuronal cell bodies for some of the primary sensory afferents innervating ___________ muscle spindles.

temporalis

178

The anterior inferior aspect of the __________ typically receives its blood supply from branches of the sphenopalatine greater palatine anterior ethmoidal and facial arteries.

nasal septum

180

The _____________ muscle is a derivative of the fourth pharyngeal arch.

levator palatini

181

Protrusion of the tongue is a function of the __________________.

genioglossus muscle

183

The optic nerve contains the axons of the _________ cells of the retina.

ganglion

184

The glossopharyngeal vagus and accessory nerves all exit the ___________ fossa by traversing the __________ foramen.

posterior cranial jugular

185

The ________ muscle forms the floor of the oral cavity.

mylohyoid

186

The ___________ reflex tests the parasympathetic motor function of the IIIrd cranial nerve.

pupillary

187

The auriculotemporal nerve a ________ branch of the mandibular nerve passes medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle and posterior to the neck of the mandible.

sensory

189

The crista ampullaris is a receptor structure located in the semicircular canals of the petrous portion of the __________ bone.

temporal

190

The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is the only abductor (movement) of the __________.

vocal folds

191

The _____________ a brain structure involved in the regulation of body weight sleep and sexual behavior is a subdivision of the diencephalon (region of the brain).

hypothalamus

192

The promontory with its associated tympanic plexus is located in the _______ wall of the ___________.

medial middle ear

193

Epidural hematomas are typically associated with a laceration of one or more of the ____________ arteries whereas _______________ hematomas are associated with tears of the superficial cerebral veins.

meningeal subdural

194

The venous drainage of the ________ and the ___________________ are interconnected through a series of emissary veins.

scalp superior sagittal sinus

196

The _____________ is inferior to the vocal folds and is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

laryngeal mucosa

197

The medial and lateral pterygoid muscles function during the side-to-side grinding motion of the __________.

mandible

199

The first pharyngeal cleft positioned adjacent to the _________ pharyngeal cleft contributes to the formation of the external ear.

second

200

The nerve of the pterygoid canal enters the pterygopalatine fossa by traversing the ______________.

pterygoid canal

200

The cell bodies of the _________________ neurons innervating the parotid gland are located in the otic ganglion.

postganglionic parasympathetic

202

Axons arising from the left pontine nuclei project to the ______________ by passing through the right middle cerebellar peduncle.

cerebellar cortex

204

The output of the globus pallidus controls motor movements by inhibition of the _____________ (VA/VL) of the thalamus.

motor nuclei

206

The ___________ and their associated buccal mucosa are innervated by the PSA nerves.

upper molars

207

The __________ nerve provides sensory innervation to the molars of the lower jaw.

inferior alveolar

207

Axons projecting from the __________ to the cerebral cortex must pass through the internal capsule.

thalamus

208

The ____________ nerve contains the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina.

optic

209

The thyroid gland initially develops as a ______________ at foramen cecum a tongue structure.

diverticulum

210

The superior oblique muscle of the eye receives its sensory innervation from branches of the ___________ nerve.

ophthalmic

211

The utricle is the most important end organ for our sense of linear horizontal ____________.

acceleration

212

The ___________ muscle of the eye receives its sensory innervation from branches of the ophthalmic nerve.

superior oblique

213

The output of the _____________ controls motor movements by inhibition of the motor nuclei (VA/VL) of the thalamus.

globus pallidus

215

Axons projecting to and from the _____________ a structure critical to the formation of new memories traverse the fornix.

hippocampus

217

The midline region of the cerebellum modulates motor movements of the _________.

trunk

218

The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus contains the neuronal cell bodies for some of the ____________ innervating temporalis muscle spindles.

primary sensory afferents

219

The ___________ muscle functions to elevate the hyoid and larynx and is innervated by a branch of ventral ramus C1.

thyrohyoid (geniohyoid)

220

The ____________ and anterior belly of the digastric are both derived from the first pharyngeal arch.

mylohyoid

221

The tongue is derived from the first second third and fourth ___________ and myoblasts from the occipital somites.

pharyngeal arches

222

The primary auditory cortex is located in the __________ lobe.

temporal

223

The stylopharyngeus muscle enters the pharynx by passing between the superior and middle _____________.

constrictor muscles

225

The longus colli muscle extends from vertebral body to vertebral body and functions in flexion of the ________.

neck

227

The maxilla forms from fusion of the bilateral medial nasal processes and ____________ of the paired maxillary processes.

distal zones

228

The zygomatic arch and the ramus of the mandible form the lateral boundary of the _____________.

infratemporal fossa

229

The secondary palate is formed by the fusion of the right and left __________ shelves.

palatine

230

Coordination of emotional responses is the function of the limbic circuit involving the amygdala whereas memory consolidation involves the _______________.

hippocampus

231

The levator palatini muscle is a derivative of the fourth ________________.

pharyngeal arch

233

Proximal to the superior orbital fissure the __________ and __________ nerves are positioned in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus.

oculomotor trochlear

234

The ________ branch of the mandibular nerve re-enters the skull by traversing the foramen spinosum.

meningeal

235

The mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric are both derived from the first _________________.

pharyngeal arch

236

The meningeal branch of the _______________ re-enters the skull by traversing the foramen spinosum.

mandibular nerve

237

somatosensory system.

trigeminal

238

The anterior inferior aspect of the nasal septum typically receives its blood supply from branches of the sphenopalatine greater palatine ______________ and facial arteries.

anterior ethmoidal

239

The zygomatic arch and the ramus of the mandible form the ______ boundary of the infratemporal fossa.

lateral

241

The greater palatine and nasopalatine nerves innervate the mucosa of the ____________.

hard palate

242

The anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine may be torn during a severe ___________ (movement) of the neck.

hyperextension

243

The medial and lateral pterygoid muscles function during the _____________ motion of the mandible.

side-to-side grinding

245

The amygdala a cerebral structure involved in the coordination of ____________ responses is located in the anterior-medial aspect of the temporal lobe.

emotional

246

Fine touch sensations from the mucosa covering the tip of the ____________ are conveyed to the central nervous system over the axons of the lingual nerve.

tongue

247

Axons projecting to and from the hippocampus a structure critical to the formation of new memories traverse the _______________.

fornix

249

The _________ nuclei of the thalamus are the specific relay nuclei for the motor system involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

VA/VL

250

The tongue is derived from the first second third and fourth pharyngeal arches and _____________ from the occipital somites.

myoblasts

251

The __________ muscle extends from vertebral body to vertebral body and functions in flexion of the neck.

longus colli

252

The superior and inferior colliculi are located in the ___________ the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.

tectum

253

The venous drainage of the scalp and the superior sagittal sinus are interconnected through a series of ____________veins.

emissary

254

The sphenoid sinus typically drains into the sphenoethmoidal recess of the ___________.

nasal cavity

255

_____________ clefts are covered by ectoderm and positioned between adjacent pharyngeal arches.

pharyngeal

256

__________ ___________ and ___________ of the eye are all functions of the superior oblique muscle.

abduction depression intorsion

256

The upper compartment of the TMJ is classified (synovial) as a gliding (plane) joint where as the lower compartment is a ______ joint.

hinge

257

The longus colli muscle extends from vertebral body to vertebral body and functions in _________ of the neck.

flexion

257

Proximal to the superior orbital fissure the oculomotor and trochlear nerves are positioned in the ________ wall of the cavernous sinus.

lateral

259

The stylopharyngeus muscle enters the _________ by passing between the superior and middle constrictor muscles.

pharynx

260

The temporalis masseter and _______________ muscles all function to elevate (movement) the mandible.

medial pterygoid

261

The ___________ ______ and __________ nerves all exit the posterior cranial fossa by traversing the jugular foramen.

glossopharyngeal vagus accessory

262

The VA/VL nuclei of the __________ are the specific relay nuclei for the motor system involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia.

thalamus

263

The amygdala a cerebral structure involved in the coordination of emotional responses is located in the ___________ aspect of the temporal lobe.

anterior-medial

264

The ____________ aspect of the nasal septum typically receives its blood supply from branches of the sphenopalatine greater palatine anterior ethmoidal and facial arteries.

anterior inferior

266

The thyroid gland initially develops as a diverticulum at ____________ a tongue structure.

foramen cecum

267

Axons arising from the lateral geniculate nucleus project to the primary visual cortex of the _____________ lobe.

occipital

269

The ophthalmic veins interconnect the venous drainage of the _____ and ______ with the cavernous sinus.

face orbit

270

The parapharyngeal space is positioned between the medial pterygoid and the _______________.

superior constrictor

271

Axons arising from the left pontine nuclei project to the cerebellar cortex by passing through the right middle _________________.

cerebellar peduncle

272

The _________ nerve emerges from the medulla between the pyramid and the olive.

hypoglossal

273

The anterior inferior aspect of the nasal septum typically receives its blood supply from branches of the ___________ greater palatine anterior ethmoidal and facial arteries.

sphenopalatine

275

The __________ muscle enters the pharynx by passing between the superior and middle constrictor muscles.

stylopharyngeus

276

The stapedius muscle attaches in part to the _________ (ossicle) and is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve.

stapes

277

___________________ are located in the CSF filled subarachnoid space.

superficial cerebral veins

278

Superficial cerebral veins are located in the ____________ filled subarachnoid space.

CSF

279

The corneal (blink) reflex tests the sensory function of the ______ cranial nerve and the motor function of the ________ cranial nerve.

Vth VIIth

281

The ___________ masseter and medial pterygoid muscles all function to elevate (movement) the mandible.

temporalis

283

The greater petrosal nerve is the parasympathetic root of the ___________ ganglion.

pterygopalatine

284

Coordination of _________ responses is the function of the limbic circuit involving the amygdala whereas memory consolidation involves the hippocampus.

emotional

285

The globus pallidus and _________ are positioned directly lateral to the internal capsule.

putamen

286

The _____________ nucleus contains the neuronal cell bodies for some of the primary sensory afferents innervating temporalis muscle spindles.

mesencephalic trigeminal

287

The ________________ nucleus is the thalamus relay nucleus for the auditory system.

medial geniculate

288

The amygdala a cerebral structure involved in the coordination of emotional responses is located in the anterior-medial aspect of the ____________ lobe.

temporal

289

The central lower lip drains directly into the _________ lymph nodes.

submental

291

The __________ ligament of the spine may be torn during a severe hyperextension (movement) of the neck.

anterior longitudinal

292

Coordination of emotional responses is the function of the limbic circuit involving the amygdala whereas __________ consolidation involves the hippocampus.

memory

293

The __________ nerve a sensory branch of the mandibular nerve passes medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle and posterior to the neck of the mandible.

auriculotemporal

294

The thyrohyoid (geniohyoid) muscle functions to elevate the hyoid and larynx and is innervated by a branch of ____________.

ventral ramus C1

295

The abducens nerve traverses the ___________ adjacent to the internal carotid artery.

cavernous sinus

296

The stapedius muscle is a derivative of the second _____________.

pharyngeal arch

297

The tectorial membrane is continuous with the posterior longitudinal ligament of the _______________.

vertebral column

298

Axons projecting from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex must pass through the __________.

internal capsule

299

The laryngeal mucosa is inferior to the _________ and is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

vocal folds

300

The ophthalmic veins interconnect the venous drainage of the face and orbit with the ________________.

cavernous sinus