What is the weather?
Day to day changes in the atmosphere at a given time and place
What is climate?
Long-term weather pattern of an area (total of average weather conditions recorded over 30 years)
What variables are measured for weather?
Temperature, precipitation, wind speed/direction, cloud cover and air pressure.
What variables are measured for climate?
Temperature, precipitation and wind.
Define temperature, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
Exactly how hot or cold it is, Thermometer, and °C/°F
Define precipitation, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
Water falling from the sky in any form, Rain Gauge, and Millimetres
Define humidity, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
The amount of water vapour held in the air, Hygrometer, and a Percentage
Define wind speed, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
How fast the wind is blowing, Anemometer, and Kilometres per hour
Define wind direction, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
Where the wind is blowing from, Wind Vane, and Compass Points
Define air pressure, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
How heavy the air is around us, Barometer, and Millibars
Define cloud type.
These can tell us something about the weather higher in the atmosphere
Define cloud cover, the measuring equipment used to work it out, and the units it is measured in.
How much of the sky is covered with cloud, Okta Index Cover and Oktas.
Starting from the ground, what is the order of the five layers of the atmosphere?
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
What happens in the troposphere?
Contains half of Earth’s atmosphere and weather occurs in this layer.
What happens in the stratosphere?
Many aeroplanes fly here, because it is very stable. The ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun.
What happens in the mesosphere?
Meteors and rock fragments burn up here.
What happens in the thermosphere?
It’s the layer with auroras and where the space shuttle orbits.
What happens in the exosphere?
This is the layer where the atmosphere merges into space, and is extremely thin.
What is an air mass?
An air mass is a big lump of atmosphere
What is the sea surface temperature?
The water temperature of the surface of the ocean.
What is the water cycle?
A never ending transfer of water between sea, air and land
What does an input mean?
Something entering the system
What does an output mean?
Something leaving the system
What is a flow or transfer?
Movement in the system
What is a store?
Something held in the system
What is a reservoir?
A large lake where water is stored (normally man-made)
What is a surface runoff?
Water flowing over the ground (e.g. rivers)
What is evaporation?
Water changing from a liquid to a gas (water vapour)
What is groundwater?
Water held underground in soil or in rock
What is transpiration?
Water released from plant leaves into the atmosphere
What is condensation?
Water changing from a gas to a liquid (water droplets)
How are clouds formed?
When air at ground level rises due to heat and the water vapour inside cools. The droplets form together but stay spaced out so that the cloud can float.
What are synoptic charts?
Charts of surface pressure. They help meteorologists predict the weather.
What are isobars?
Lines joining areas of equal pressure
What happens when air is rising?
There’s less force pressing down on us, so the air pressure falls.
What happens when air is sinking?
Air pressure rises