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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (34)
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1

What is pharmacokinetics?

the science of the rate of movement of drugs within biological systems, as affected by absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of medications

2

What is pharmacodynamics?

the study of the biochemical and physiological processes underlying drug action

3

What is bioavailability?

the fraction of the administered dose of drug that reaches the systemic circulation
Expressed as F

4

What is volume of distribution?

volume = dose/plasma concentration

5

What is clearance?

volume of plasma cleared of drug per unit of time

6

What is half-life?

time required for serum plasma concentration to decrease by half

7

WHat is half life determined by?

clearance and volume of distribution

8

How many half lives does it take to reach steady state?

4-5

9

WHat is meant by linear pharmacokinetics?

concentration that results from a dose is proportional to the dose
rate of elimination is proportional to the concentration

10

What is meant by non-linear pharmacokinetics?

concentration that results is not proportional to dose
rate of elimination is constant regardless of amount of drug present

11

WHat are the key types of drug receptors?

enzyme linked
ion channel linked
g protein linked
nuclear linked

12

What is affinity?

measure of propensity of a drug to bind receptor

13

What is efficacy?

ability of a bound drug to change the receptor in a way that produces an effect

14

What are the core features of ADHD?

inattention and lack of persistence in activities requiring concentration
excessive activity
impulsivity

15

What are the requirements for an ADHD diagnosis?

apparent before the child is 7
excessive for child's age and development
pervasive in more than 1 environment
symptoms may worsen in the afternoon
must have significant impact on life

16

What are some of the main genes associated with ADHD?

DRD4 receptor
SLC6A3 /DAT1
DRD5
SL6A4/5HTT

17

Describe the genetic-environmental interactions in ADHD

genes can either increase or reduce the impact of an environment or an environment can activate a genetic effect
genetic factors contritute to the development of behavioural symptoms on a background of high environmental adversity

18

What are some of the executive difficulties found with ADHD?

organisation
planning
working memory
attention
response inhibition
impulse control

19

What are some of the comorbid associations with ADHD?

sleep disorders
behavioural difficulties
specific learning disabilities
developmental co-ordination disorders
social communication
anxiety
tic disorders
mood difficulties

20

What are the first line ADHD medications?

psychostimulants - methylphenidate and dexamphetamine

21

What is the second line medication for ADHD?

atomoxetine

22

What are the third line treatments for ADHD?

clonidine and guanficine

23

What are the factors associated with persistence of ADHD into adulthood?

progressive reduction in cerebellar and hippocampal volumes
maternal depression
marital discord
negative parent-child interaction
family socio-economic disadvantage
familial ADHD

24

Describe dopamine neurotransmission relative to ADHD

enhances signal
improves attention
focus
on task behaviour
on task cognition

25

Describe noradrenaline neurotransmission relative to ADHD

dampens noise
executive operations
increases inhibition

26

Describe the problems in ADHD due to deficiency in arousal mechanisms

defective inhibitory response (in compromised PFC) leads to insufficient information processing (symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity)
PFC neurones are out of tune and can't distinguish between important signals and background noise - can't focus as all the signals are at the same time

27

What are the three overlying processes in the formation of the cerebral cortex?

neuroblast proliferation
migration of immature neurones from ventricular zone to the cortical plate
organisation into 6 layered cortex and formation of connections throughout the brain

28

What is congenital malformation?

primary failure of development of an organ

29

What is dysplasia in terms of brain development?

abnormal cellular migration and differentiation

30

What is congenital deformation?

damage to an organ after it has normally formed - hydrocephalus

31

What are the risks associated with cocaine consumption during pregnancy?

intrauterine growth retardation
microcephaly
cerebral infarction
urogenital abnormalities
sudden infant death syndrome
neuronal and behavioural abnormalities

32

What is the triad of shaken baby syndrome?

subdural haematoma
retinal haemorrhage
encephalopathy

33

What is the best predictor of a child's IQ?

the mothers

34

What are some of the problems related to lack of secure attachment in infancy?

disturbances of social relatedness and attachment
externalising behaviour problems
inattention / hyperactivity
deficits in IQ
syndrome that mimics autism