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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (89):
1

Anatomy =

structure

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Physiology =

function

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molecules

atoms formed together

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Organelle

Molecules formed together

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Cell

Organelles formed together

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Tissue

Same type of cell formed together

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Organ

Made up of tissue

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System

Made up of organs working together

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homeostasis

Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite exterior environment.

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Negative feedback system

reverses response; if body temp drops to 36 degrees, body shivers then REVERSES back to 37 degrees.

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Positive feedback system

enhances the original stimulus; blood vessel cut on the thumb, cells come to the area to form a plug to stop bleeding.

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pharmacology

study of medicine, how we use it and the effect on the body.

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drug

medicine that has physiology impact on tissue cells

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therapeutic effect

desirable and beneficial outcome, consequence of medicine

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drug allergy

stimulates immune system

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drug interaction

take more than one drug that may interfere with another and worsen the condition

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drug abuse

continually consuming drugs

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drug dependence

constantly needing drug to function

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dose of drug

achieves desired effect without harm

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bioavailability

drug goes into blood and becomes available to all tissue cells

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tolerance

decreases response of dose of drug

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antagonist

drug that blocks receptor to activate

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Agonist

drug that initiates receptor to activate

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how drugs work

drug molecule must inflict on the cell to produce a pharmacological response, either mimic or block.

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mimic

mimic chemicals that are already in body eg, contraceptive pill

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block

block drug chemical reaction

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sublingual

under tongue, rapid absorption to bloodstream

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rectal

when drug tastes horrible

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intramuscular injection

can administer large amount of drug, fast absorption

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IV drip

directly into blood

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oral

swallow tablet/liquid

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inhalation

if someone has asthma, like taking a puffer

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therapeutic effect

desired effect of a medical treatment, only give dose of drugs between therapeutic range

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pharmacokinetics

what body does to the drugs

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ADME

absorption through small intestine, distribution throughout body, metabolised, excreted.

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Factors affecting ADME

solubility of drug, surface are (more = quicker absorption), size of drug, blood flow

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histology

study of tissues

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first pass effect

concentration of drug is reduced if it goes through liver, so if drug is necessary in strong doses, oral consumption should be avoided. Liver can not metabolise drug if taken through IV, interskeletal or rectal.

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drug dose determined by....

age, weight, height, gender, other medications

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superior

toward head or upper body

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inferior

toward lower part of body

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anterior

facing front

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posterior

facing backward

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medial

closer to the centre of the body

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lateral

away from the centre of the body

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intermediate

between medial and lateral

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proximal

closer to the point of attachment to trunk of body

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distal

further from the point of attachment to trunk of body

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superficial

toward or at the body surface (close to skin)

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deep

away from body surface, internal.

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orbital

eye

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buccal

mouth

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axillary

armpit

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umbillical

navel

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cubital

anterior surface of elbow

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fermoral

thigh

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pubic

genital region

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cervical

neck region

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thoracic

chest

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brachial

arm

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abdominal

anterior body trunk

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groin

where thigh meets body trunk

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flank

lateral surface of body from rib cage to the hip

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scapular

shoulder blade area

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lumbar

area of back between ribs and hips

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calf

posterior surface of lower leg

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deltoid

curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle

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gluteal

buttocks or rump

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popliteal

knee region

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occipital

posterior surface of head

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frontal plane

divides the body into anterior and posterior

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sagittal plane

divides the body into left and right

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trasnverse plane

divides body into superior and inferior

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dorsal body cavity

includes cranial and spinal cavity

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ventral body cavity

includes thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavity

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cranial

brain

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vertebral

spinal cord

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abdominal

pancreas, spleen

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pelvic

bladder, rectum, reproductive organs

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digestive system

digests food through mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. gets excreted through pooooo

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cardiovascular system

transports nutrients, blood cells, fluids, dissolved gases and wastes around the body.

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respiratory system

functions in external respiration to absorb oxygen. Regulation of body's acid-base balance.

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Skeletal system

Frames body, supports it. Provides attachment and lever systems for muscles and acts in locomotion.

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muscular system

functions are based on 3 different cells; skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.

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excretory system

by way of kidney function, rids body of waste and maintains water balance.

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nervous system

nerves are special cells adapted for transmitting electro/chemical messages.

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Endocrine system

produces hormones in various glands of internal secretion and works with other systems.

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Lymphatic system

sub-system of cardiovascular, collect and return intestinal fluid. maintain body fluid balance.

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reproductive system

perpetuates species via production of eggs in females and sperm in males.