Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (58):
what is 'matter'?
anything that can occupy space and has a mass. It is made up of elements.
What is the atomic number?
number of protons in the nucleus.
What are each of the charges in an atom?
Neutron- neutral, proton- positive, electron- negative
Mass number - atomic number = ??
what is the valence shell?
the outermost shell
what is a molecule of an element?
two of the SAME element bonded together (H2)
what is a molecule of a compound?
2 or more DIFFERENT elements chemically bonded together (H+Cl = HCl)
how does a chemical bond occur?
occurs when electrons from each of the atoms are interacting.
What is a covalent bond?
when two atoms share electrons with one another so that both atoms are stable with a full valence shell.
What is an ionic bond?
When an atom donates one of their electrons to another atom so that both atoms are stable with a full valence shell.
What is an anion?
An anion is an atom that ACCEPTS electrons and becomes negatively charged.
What is a cation?
A cation is an atom that DONATES electrons and becomes positively charged.
What is a mixture?
a mixture is when two or more components are physically mixed together, not chemically bonded.
What is a compound?
When two components are chemically bonded.
What is the atomic mass?
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What is an inorganic compound?
compound that does NOT contain carbon
What is an organic compound?
compound that DOES contain carbon
What is considered a proton donor?
Acids are considered proton donors because they contain H+
What is considered a proton acceptor?
Bases are considered proton accepters as they are the ones that receive the H+.
What should the pH of blood be?
What does pH mean?
Power of hydrogen.
If there's more H+ in a solution, will it be acidic or basic?
The solution will be more acidic. If it's more acidic the pH will be lower.
If there is a higher concentration of OH-, will the pH level be higher or lower?
The pH will be higher because the more basic a solution is, the increased pH level it will be.
what type of scale is the pH scale?
logarithmic- every variation of a single pH unit represents a 10-fold diference in H+ concentration.
Will a strong or weak acid dissociate completely in water?
A strong acid like HCl will dissociate completely, whereas a weak acid like Carbonic Acid will not dissociate fully.
How do you measure a pH of a solution?
Using a universal indicator.
What is a buffer?
A chemical system designed to resist changes in H+ concentration.
What regulates the acid/base balance in the body?
Kidneys, lungs and buffers.
What does a buffer do if the pH rises?
A buffer will release hydrogen ions
What does a buffer do if the pH drops?
The buffer will bind hydrogen ions.
What happens when the blood becomes too acidic?
Bicarbonate acid absorbs hydrogen ions to form more carbonic acid.
What happens when the blood becomes too basic?
Carbonic acid will break down to create more hydrogen ions to reduce the pH level and bring it back to homeostatic level.
What is acidosis?
When the blood becomes too acidic, the pH is too low.
What is alkalosis?
When the blood becomes too basic, the pH is too high.
What are the four main types of organic molecules in our body?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
What are the building blocks for carbohydrates?
What are simple carbohydrates?
Simple carbs are those with 1-2 sugar molecules, monosaccharides and disaccharides
What are complex carbohydrates?
Complex carbs have a string of sugar molecules, polysaccharides.
What are the types of monosaccharides?
Glucose, fructose, galactose
What are the types of disaccharides?
sucrose, maltose, lactose
What are triglycerides made up of?
3 fatty acids + glycerol
What are phospholipids made up of?
Fatty acids, glycerol and phosphorus.
What are the building blocks for steroids?
four hydrocarbon rings
What are the building blocks of protein?
What are enzymes and what do they do?
Enzymes are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to accelerate biochemical reactions.
What are the two most common nucleic acids?
Dexoyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribose nucleic acid (RNA)
What are the five varieties of nucleotides?
Adenine, thyamine, cytosine, guanine.
How do the nucleotides connect in the structure of DNA?
T = A and C = G
How much water is in ICF?
2/3 of water is in intracellular fluid.
How much water is in ECF?
1/3 of water is in extracellular fluid.
Where are sodium ions found in the body?
Sodium ions are main cations found outside cells in the body, they help regulate bodily fluids.
Where are potassium ions found in the body?
Potassium ions are main cations found inside cells in the body, help to regulate nerve impulses and heartbeats.
Where are chloride ions found in the body?
Chloride ions are main anions found outside cells in the body, regulation of acid-base balance.
What does tonicity mean?
What does isotonic mean?
when the concentration of solute is the same on both sides of the membrane. EG. if giving IV drip at 9% salt concentration, it'd be because that's the same concentration as inside patient's cells.
What does hypertonic mean?
the solution with a higher concentration of solute compared to another solution.