Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (37):
What is the definition of a cell?
The structural and functional unit of life.
What are the three basic parts of a cell?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
Where are the phospholipids located?
In the cell membrane
What does semi-permeable membrane mean?
It means that only selective substances are allowed to enter and exit the membrane.
What do phospholipids look like?
they have a head and a tail
Which part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic?
the polar head is hydrophilic meaning that it loves water.
What does hydrophobic mean?
Hydrophobic means a fear of water, non-polar tails are hydrophobic.
What is the cytoplasm?
Everything located between the nucleus and cell membrane/
Function of mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, site of ATP synthesis
Function of ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Function of endoplasmic reticulum
Folding of protein molecules into sacs and thetransport of synthesised proteins
function of golgi apparatus
packaging of protein
Function of lysosome
function of centriole
for cell division
funciton of nucleus
Control centre, CEO of cell/
What are the three parts of the nucleus?
Nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus
What are the two ways to pass a membrane?
Passive process- no energy required. active transport- needs energy
What is passive process?
It's when substances move from high to low concentration. there are two types; diffusion and osmosis.
Diffusion is when a molecule will actively diffuse through a membrane if it is a lipid, soluble, small enough to pass through or if it's assisted by carrier molecule.
What is the difference between facilitated and simple diffusion?
simple diffusion is when a molecule is able to pass through a membrane on its own, whereas facilitated is when a molecule binds to a chemical that makes it change shape and allow it to pass the membrane.
Osmosis is the movement of solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.
What is osmolarity?
measure of total concentration of solute
What is osmotic pressure?
the tendency of water to move into a cell by osmosis.
What is active transport?
Active transport requires energy to move from a low to high concentration gradient. It's involved in the transport of nutrients and ions.
What is exocytosis?
transporting out of cell.
What is endocytosis?
Transporting INTO cell.
What is mitosis?
A type of cell division essential for body growth and tissue repair. Cells die and are always replaced.
What are the three subphases of mitosis?
G1- vigorous growth and metabolism
S1- synthetic- DNA replication occurs
S2- preparation for division
What are the mitotic phases?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase and cytokensis.
What are the types of primary tissues?
Epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
Describe each type of primary tissue's function.
Epithelial- forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs and filters
connective- supports, protects, binds other tissues
muscle- contracts to cause movement
nerve- internal communication
What are the two types of epithelial tissue?
Glandular and covering and lining.
What does simple and stratified mean?
If there is only one cell layer, it's simple. If there are more than two layers then it's stratified.
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