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What are the types of interviewing?

• Fully Structured: all questions delivered consistently, in the same order, regardless of client responses (used in candidate selection)

• Semi-Structured: Some set questions that are delivered to all respondents, other questions vary depending on the client response. The interview can take different courses (Used in practise and in research)

• Un-structured: An exploratory interview with no set questions

• Motivational: focuses on exploring and resolving ambivalence; centres on motivational processes to facilitate change


What is interprofessional practice and what is its aim?

Collaborative psychology practice and research where multiple professionals from different professional backgrounds adopt a comprehensive approach to get the best possible outcome (adapted from WHO, 2010)

Aim: to produce a collaborative practice ready psychology workforce responsive to a range of contexts


What is reflective practice?

• Meta cognitive ability, thinking and reflecting on one’s own mental processes

• Focus inward

• Curious, accepting, compassionate and motivated to learn and grow


What is the theory behind motivational interviewing?

• Well –accepted strategy for behaviour change consistent with contemporary theories • Based on theory that motivation is necessary for change to occur • Resides within the individual • Achievable by eliciting personal values/desires and ability to change • Based on allowing the client to interpret and integrate health and behaviour change information if perceived as relevant to his/her own situation • Acknowledges the client is the expert in their own life


When is motivational interviewing most effective?

Likelihood for positive change: when change connected with what is valued by the client

Appears to be most effective for clients with low motivation to change behaviours as it encourages trust between clinician and patient and allows the clinician to focus on gauging readiness for behaviour change


Confrontational styles or direct persuasion

More likely to produce resistance


What are the four key principles of motivational interviewing?

Partnership with the client (client centred focus)

We don’t “do” MI to people we use it as a process to talk to people

Acceptance – accept that people can only change when they want to change (we don’t push people in any way) at the end of the day it’s the client’s choice

Compassion – about being non-judgemental, being caring and compassionate towards the clients, being aware what will be of benefit to the client. Showing genuine care and interest in the client.

Evocation - we are assuming that the client has the ability to change, but the client cannot be passive, they need to be an active participant in this process, they generate their own solutions to change.



What are the stages of change?

Precontemplation - No intention of changing behaviour

Contemplation - Aware a problem exists. No commitment to action

Preparation - Intent upon taking action

Action - Active modification of behaviour

Maintenance - Sustained change, new behaviour replaces old

Relapse - Fall back into old patterns of behaviour


How does interprofessional learning work?

• Intergroup contact theory (Allport, 1954); contact reduces prejudice

• Constructivist learning theory; learning happens via active participation (Piaget, 1936) 


Additional benefits of interprofessional learning

• Frederick Piscine, Sherbrooke University, International Conference, Applied Psychology, 2018 Montreal

• Self reflexivity

• Improved understanding of role

• Reduction of prejudices

• Higher trust and self-efficacy belief

• Communication - find differences interesting


Benefits of collaborative practice


Scientist-Practitioner Model

• The practitioner uses research to influence their applied practice

• While simultaneously, allowing their professional experiences to shape their future research questions

• Has been contested and debated


What are the levels of evidence in psychological research?


What are the skills used in interprofessional collaboration?

• Communication:

o Communicating and expressing ideas in an assertive and respectful manner

o Uses communication strategies (oral, written, information technology) effectively


o Establishing collaborative relationships with others in planning an implementation

o Promotes the integration of information from others

o Shared information appropriately and with consent

• Role Clarity:

o Clearly describes one’s own roles and responsibilities

o Integrated the roles and responsibilities of others with one’s own to optimize outcomes

o Accepts accountability for one’s contributions

o Shares evidence-based and/or best practice discipline-specific knowledge

• Client-centred practice:

o Seek input from the client

o Integrates client’s circumstances, cultural preferences, values, expressed needs,

beliefs/behaviours into plans of action

o Shares options and information with client

o Advocates for the client as partner in decision-making processes

• Team Functioning:

o Recognises and contributes to effective team functioning and dynamics

o Recognises that leadership may alternate or be shared, depending on the situation

o Contributes to interprofessional team discussions

• Conflict resolution:

o Demonstrates active listening and is respectful of different perspectives and opinions

o Works with others to manage and resolve conflict effectively