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Flashcards in week 12 Deck (54):
1


1) The tissue that always has a free surface exposed to the internal or external environment is


A) epithelial tissue.  
B) connective tissue.
C) muscle tissue.
D) neural tissue.
E) contractive tissue.



1) The tissue that always has a free surface exposed to the internal or external environment is


A) epithelial tissue.   *
B) connective tissue.
C) muscle tissue.
D) neural tissue.
E) contractive tissue.

2

2) Functions of epithelia include all of the following, except


A) providing physical protection.
B) controlling permeability.
C) absorption.
D) producing specialized secretions.
E) storing energy reserves. 


2) Functions of epithelia include all of the following, except

A) providing physical protection.
B) controlling permeability.
C) absorption.
D) producing specialized secretions.
E) storing energy reserves.    *

3

3) Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have _____ at their free surface.

A) many mitochondria
B) cilia
C) microvilli  
D) junctional complexes
E) Golgi complexes


3) Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have _____ at their free surface.

A) many mitochondria
B) cilia
C) microvilli 
D) junctional complexes
E) Golgi complexes

4

4) Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by


A) a basement membrane.
B) interfacial canals.
C) a basal lamina.
D) a reticular lamina.
E) proteoglycan.


4) Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by


A) a basement membrane.
B) interfacial canals.
C) a basal lamina.
D) a reticular lamina.
E) proteoglycan.

5


5) The basic shapes of epithelial cells include all of the following, except

A) stratified.  
B) squamous.
C) cuboidal.
D) columnar.
E) all of the above


5) The basic shapes of epithelial cells include all of the following, except

A) stratified.  
B) squamous.
C) cuboidal.
D) columnar.
E) all of the above

6


6) The type of epithelium that is found lining internal body compartments and blood vessels is


A) simple squamous epithelium.  
B) stratified squamous epithelium.
C) simple cuboidal epithelium.
D) stratified cuboidal epithelium.
E) transitional epithelium.


6) The type of epithelium that is found lining internal body compartments and blood vessels is


A) simple squamous epithelium. 
B) stratified squamous epithelium.
C) simple cuboidal epithelium.
D) stratified cuboidal epithelium.
E) transitional epithelium.

7

7) Which of the following is not a correct statement about simple epithelia?


A) They afford little mechanical protection.
B) They are characteristic of regions where secretion or absorption occurs.
C) They line internal compartments and passageways.
D) They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or chemical stress.  
E) They are avascular.

7) Which of the following is not a correct statement about simple epithelia?


A) They afford little mechanical protection.
B) They are characteristic of regions where secretion or absorption occurs.
C) They line internal compartments and passageways.
D) They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or chemical stress.  
E) They are avascular.

8

8) Simple cuboidal epithelium would be found


A) at the surface of the skin.
B) lining the trachea.
C) lining blood vessels.
D) forming the follicles of the thyroid gland.  
E) lining the air sacs of the lungs.

8) Simple cuboidal epithelium would be found


A) at the surface of the skin.
B) lining the trachea.
C) lining blood vessels.
D) forming the follicles of the thyroid gland. 
E) lining the air sacs of the lungs.

9


9) The fibrous components of connective tissue are produced by


A) fibroblasts.  
B) macrophages.
C) adipocytes.
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.



9) The fibrous components of connective tissue are produced by


A) fibroblasts. 
B) macrophages.
C) adipocytes.
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.

10


10) Cells that store fat are called


A) fibroblasts.
B) fixed macrophages.
C) adipocytes.  
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.


10) Cells that store fat are called


A) fibroblasts.
B) fixed macrophages.
C) adipocytes.   *
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.

11

11) You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the


A) trachea.  
B) urinary bladder.
C) secretory portions of the pancreas.
D) surface of the skin.
E) stomach.


11) You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the


A) trachea.   *
B) urinary bladder.
C) secretory portions of the pancreas.
D) surface of the skin.
E) stomach.

12


12) The fibrous components of connective tissue are produced by


A) fibroblasts.  
B) macrophages.
C) adipocytes.
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.


12) The fibrous components of connective tissue are produced by


A) fibroblasts.   *
B) macrophages.
C) adipocytes.
D) mast cells.
E) melanocytes.

13

 13) Loose connective tissue functions in all of the following ways, except


A) transporting substances between cells.   
B) supporting epithelia.
C) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.
D) storing lipids.
E) filling spaces between organs.


 13) Loose connective tissue functions in all of the following ways, except


A) transporting substances between cells.    *
B) supporting epithelia.
C) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.
D) storing lipids.
E) filling spaces between organs.

14


14) Cells that respond to injury or infection by dividing to produce daughter cells that differentiate into other cell types are


A) mast cells.
B) fibroblasts.
C) plasma cells.
D) mesenchymal cells.  
E) lymphocytes.


14) Cells that respond to injury or infection by dividing to produce daughter cells that differentiate into other cell types are


A) mast cells.
B) fibroblasts.
C) plasma cells.
D) mesenchymal cells.   *
E) lymphocytes.z

15

15) The red color and heat associated with inflamed tissue is the result of


A) increased numbers of white cells in the injured area.
B) local vasodilation.  
C) loss of blood from the injured tissue.
D) increased numbers of bacteria in the area of a wound.
E) the release of heparin from injured cells.


15) The red color and heat associated with inflamed tissue is the result of


A) increased numbers of white cells in the injured area.
B) local vasodilation.   *
C) loss of blood from the injured tissue.
D) increased numbers of bacteria in the area of a wound.
E) the release of heparin from injured cells.

16


16) Endocrine glands empty their products into _____ and are referred to as _____ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into _____.


A) cells; cellular; blood
B) blood; ducted; cells
C) interstitial fluid; ducted; interstitial fluid
D) interstitial fluid or blood; ductless; ducts  
E) ducts; ducted; blood


16) Endocrine glands empty their products into _____ and are referred to as _____ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into _____.


A) cells; cellular; blood
B) blood; ducted; cells
C) interstitial fluid; ducted; interstitial fluid
D) interstitial fluid or blood; ductless; ducts   *
E) ducts; ducted; blood

17

17) The three major types of connective tissue include


A) connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.  
B) epithelial, muscle, and neural.
C) glandular, exocrine, and endocrine.
D) A and C only
E) all of the above


17) The three major types of connective tissue include


A) connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.   *
B) epithelial, muscle, and neural.
C) glandular, exocrine, and endocrine.
D) A and C only
E) all of the above

18


18) The framework or stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of _____ tissue.

A) loose connective
B) regular dense connective
C) irregular dense connective
D) reticular connective  
E) adipose


18) The framework or stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of _____ tissue.

A) loose connective
B) regular dense connective
C) irregular dense connective
D) reticular connective   *
E) adipose

19


 19) Each of the following is an example of dense connective tissue, except


A) tendons.
B) ligaments.
C) aponeuroses.
D) areolar tissue.  
E) elastic tissue.


 19) Each of the following is an example of dense connective tissue, except


A) tendons.
B) ligaments.
C) aponeuroses.
D) areolar tissue.   *
E) elastic tissue.

20


20) Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are


A) tendons.
B) ligaments.
C) dense irregular connective tissues.  
D) aponeuroses.
E) areolar tissue.


20) Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are


A) tendons.
B) ligaments.
C) dense irregular connective tissues.   *
D) aponeuroses.
E) areolar tissue.

21

21) The cell that accounts for almost half the volume of blood is the


A) erythrocyte.  
B) leukocyte.
C) platelet.
D) monocyte.
E) phagocyte.


21) The cell that accounts for almost half the volume of blood is the


A) erythrocyte.  
B) leukocyte.
C) platelet.
D) monocyte.
E) phagocyte.

22

22) Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to


A) blood.
B) epithelium.
C) fat.
D) bone.   *
E) neural tissue.

22) Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to


A) blood.
B) epithelium.
C) fat.
D) bone.   *
E) neural tissue.

23


23) Cartilage is separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous


A) perichondrium.  
B) lacunae.
C) periosteum.
D) canaliculi.
E) Volkmann’s canal.


23) Cartilage is separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous


A) perichondrium.   *
B) lacunae.
C) periosteum.
D) canaliculi.
E) Volkmann’s canal.

24

24) The most common type of cartilage is _____ cartilage.


A) ligamentous
B) hyaline  
C) elastic
D) fibrous
E) osseous


24) The most common type of cartilage is _____ cartilage.


A) ligamentous
B) hyaline  
C) elastic
D) fibrous
E) osseous

25


25) Osseous tissue is also called


A) cartilage.
B) fat.
C) cellulite.
D) bone.  
E) ligament.


25) Osseous tissue is also called


A) cartilage.
B) fat.
C) cellulite.
D) bone.   *
E) ligament.

26


26) Which of the following refers to the dense connective tissue that forms the capsules that surround many organs?


A) superficial fascia
B) hypodermis
C) deep fascia  
D) subserous fascia
E) subcutaneous layer



26) Which of the following refers to the dense connective tissue that forms the capsules that surround many organs?


A) superficial fascia
B) hypodermis
C) deep fascia   *
D) subserous fascia
E) subcutaneous layer

27


27) Tissue that is specialized for contraction is _____ tissue.


A) loose connective
B) dense connective
C) epithelial
D) nerve
E) muscle  


27) Tissue that is specialized for contraction is _____ tissue.


A) loose connective
B) dense connective
C) epithelial
D) nerve
E) muscle  

28


28) The muscle tissue that shows no striations is _____ muscle.


A) skeletal
B) cardiac
C) smooth  
D) voluntary
E) multinucleated


28) The muscle tissue that shows no striations is _____ muscle.


A) skeletal
B) cardiac
C) smooth 
D) voluntary
E) multinucleated

29


29) Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is _____ tissue.


A) connective
B) neural  
C) areolar
D) osseous
E) epithelial



29) Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is _____ tissue.


A) connective
B) neural   *
C) areolar
D) osseous
E) epithelial

30


30) The four basic types of tissue in the body are


A) epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural.  
B) simple, cuboidal, squamous, and stratified.
C) fibroblasts, adipocytes, melanocytes, and mesenchyme.
D) lymphocytes, macrophages, microphages, and adipocytes.
E) epithelial, stratified, squamous, and lipid.



30) The four basic types of tissue in the body are


A) epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural.   *
B) simple, cuboidal, squamous, and stratified.
C) fibroblasts, adipocytes, melanocytes, and mesenchyme.
D) lymphocytes, macrophages, microphages, and adipocytes.
E) epithelial, stratified, squamous, and lipid.

31


 31) The three basic types of fibers in connective tissue are


A) tendons, ligaments, and elastic ligaments.
B) loose, dense, and irregular.
C) cartilage, bone, and collagen.
D) collagen, reticular, and elastic.  
E) polar, cellular, and permeable.



31) The three basic types of fibers in connective tissue are


A) tendons, ligaments, and elastic ligaments.
B) loose, dense, and irregular.
C) cartilage, bone, and collagen.
D) collagen, reticular, and elastic.   *
E) polar, cellular, and permeable.

32


32) Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of


A) smooth muscle tissue.
B) cardiac muscle tissue.  
C) skeletal muscle tissue.
D) A, B, and C
E) none of the above



32) Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of


A) smooth muscle tissue.
B) cardiac muscle tissue.   *
C) skeletal muscle tissue.
D) A, B, and C
E) none of the above

33


33) Which type of tissue provides structural support for other tissues?


A) neural tissue
B) connective tissue  
C) endothelial tissue
D) muscle tissue
E) epithelial tissue


33) Which type of tissue provides structural support for other tissues?


A) neural tissue
B) connective tissue   *
C) endothelial tissue
D) muscle tissue
E) epithelial tissue

34


34) Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely _____ tissue.


A) muscle
B) neural
C) epithelial  
D) connective
E) adipose



34) Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely _____ tissue.


A) muscle
B) neural
C) epithelial   *
D) connective
E) adipose

35


35) Which tissue forms coverings, linings, and glands?

A) adipose
B) connective
C) epithelial  
D) muscular
E) nervous
 


35) Which tissue forms coverings, linings, and glands?

A) adipose
B) connective
C) epithelial   *
D) muscular
E) nervous
 

36


36) A pathologist examines a thin slice of tissue with a microscope and notes numerous cells packed tightly together. No intercellular space or blood vessel is noted between cells, but the cells have polarity. One side of the cells opens into a cavity, and the other is attached to a thin layer of extracellular material. Several of the cells are in some stage of mitosis. Which primary tissue type does the pathologist see?

A) cartilage
B) connective
C) epithelial  
D) muscular
E) nervous
 


36) A pathologist examines a thin slice of tissue with a microscope and notes numerous cells packed tightly together. No intercellular space or blood vessel is noted between cells, but the cells have polarity. One side of the cells opens into a cavity, and the other is attached to a thin layer of extracellular material. Several of the cells are in some stage of mitosis. Which primary tissue type does the pathologist see?

A) cartilage
B) connective
C) epithelial   *
D) muscular
E) nervous
 

37


37) Epithelial tissues are classified based on

A) The arrangement of cells in layers.
B) The shapes of the cells in the most superficial layer.
C) The size of the cells in the deepest layer.
D) A and B are correct.   
E) A, B and C are correct.
 

37) Epithelial tissues are classified based on

A) The arrangement of cells in layers.
B) The shapes of the cells in the most superficial layer.
C) The size of the cells in the deepest layer.
D) A and B are correct.    *
E) A, B and C are correct.
 

38


38) Which of the following tissues provides the greatest protection from mechanical injury?

A) simple squamous epithelium
B) simple cuboidal epithelium
C) stratified squamous epithelium    
D) simple columnar epithelium
E) transitional epithelium
 


38) Which of the following tissues provides the greatest protection from mechanical injury?

A) simple squamous epithelium
B) simple cuboidal epithelium
C) stratified squamous epithelium     *
D) simple columnar epithelium
E) transitional epithelium
 

39


39) Which modification of columnar epithelium is correctly described?

A) goblet cells: absorb mucous
B) microvilli: increase surface area for absorption   
C) cilia: moving columnar cells
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.
 


39) Which modification of columnar epithelium is correctly described?

A) goblet cells: absorb mucous
B) microvilli: increase surface area for absorption    *
C) cilia: moving columnar cells
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.
 

40


40) All of the following are true of connective tissue fibres EXCEPT:

A) Collagen fibres decrease tissue flexibility.   
B) They strengthen and support connective tissues.
C) Elastic fibres allow connective tissues to stretch.
D) Reticular fibres support and strengthen connective tissues.
E) Reticular fibres and elastic fibres contain glycoproteins.
 


40) All of the following are true of connective tissue fibres EXCEPT:

A) Collagen fibres decrease tissue flexibility.    *
B) They strengthen and support connective tissues.
C) Elastic fibres allow connective tissues to stretch.
D) Reticular fibres support and strengthen connective tissues.
E) Reticular fibres and elastic fibres contain glycoproteins.
 

41


42) Tendons and ligaments must withstand tension along the axis of their fibres. These structures are composed of

A) cartilage
B) dense regular connective tissue    
C) dense irregular connective tissue    
D) elastic fibres
E) reticular fibres
 


42) Tendons and ligaments must withstand tension along the axis of their fibres. These structures are composed of

A) cartilage
B) dense regular connective tissue     *
C) dense irregular connective tissue    
D) elastic fibres
E) reticular fibres
 

42


43) The four primary (basic) tissue types are epithelial, ________________, muscle and  nervous tissue.
 


43) The four primary (basic) tissue types are epithelial, ________________, muscle and  nervous tissue.

Answer: connective

43


44) The ____________________________ is the thin extracellular layer that attaches epithelial tissue to underlying structures.


44) The ____________________________ is the thin extracellular layer that attaches epithelial tissue to underlying structures.

Answer: basement membrane

44


45) _________________ is the water-resistant, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin from germs and chemicals; it is not found in stratified squamous epithelia that remain moist.
 


45) _________________ is the water-resistant, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin from germs and chemicals; it is not found in stratified squamous epithelia that remain moist.


Answer: Keratin

45


46) _________________________ is the epithelial tissue that is best adapted for diffusion and filtration because it forms a single layer of thin, tile-like cells. This tissue is found in the air sacs of the lungs and in part of the kidney.

 


46) _________________________ is the epithelial tissue that is best adapted for diffusion and filtration because it forms a single layer of thin, tile-like cells. This tissue is found in the air sacs of the lungs and in part of the kidney.

Answer: Simple squamous

46


47) Simple ______________ epithelia consists of roughly rectangular cells with a basal nucleus; they may be ciliated or nonciliated.


47) Simple ______________ epithelia consists of roughly rectangular cells with a basal nucleus; they may be ciliated or nonciliated.


Answer: columnar

47

48)  ________________________ are unicellular exocrine glands which secrete mucous.
 


48)  ________________________ are unicellular exocrine glands which secrete mucous.


Answer: Goblet cells

48

49) The glands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are classified as _____________ glands.
 


49) The glands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are classified as _____________ glands.

Answer: endocrine

49


50) The ___________________________ is the material found between the cells and fibres in connective tissues.
 


50) The ___________________________ is the material found between the cells and fibres in connective tissues.

Answer: ground substance

50

51) Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue are classified as ________________ connective tissues because they are only found in the embryo and the foetus.
 


51) Mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue are classified as ________________ connective tissues because they are only found in the embryo and the foetus.

Answer: embryonic

51


52) _________________  connective tissue is characterized by a variety of fibres and cells which are loosely organized in a semifluid ground substance. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and in other areas where structures must be kept together but still have significant freedom to move.
 


52) _________________  connective tissue is characterized by a variety of fibres and cells which are loosely organized in a semifluid ground substance. It is found in the subcutaneous layer and in other areas where structures must be kept together but still have significant freedom to move.

Answer: Areolar

52


53) The three types of cartilage are elastic, fibro- and _______________  cartilage. They differ primarily in the type of fibre found in the matrix.

 


53) The three types of cartilage are elastic, fibro- and _______________  cartilage. They differ primarily in the type of fibre found in the matrix.

Answer: hyaline

53

54) Blood is the only liquid connective tissue. Its fluid matrix is the _____________.
 


54) Blood is the only liquid connective tissue. Its fluid matrix is the _____________.

Answer: plasma

 

54

55) Nerve and muscle tissue are classified as ____________________  tissues because they can respond to stimuli by generating electrical signals called action potentials.
 


55) Nerve and muscle tissue are classified as ____________________  tissues because they can respond to stimuli by generating electrical signals called action potentials.


Answer: excitable