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Flashcards in week 14 Deck (59):
1

The nervous system is organized to do which of the following?
A) Detect changes in the external environment
B) Detect changes in the internal environment
C) Evaluate changes in the environment
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

The nervous system is organized to do which of the following?

A) Detect changes in the external environment
B) Detect changes in the internal environment
C) Evaluate changes in the environment
D)All of the above *
E) None of the above

2

In the human nervous system:

A) most of the cells are neurons.
B) most of the cells are glia cells.
C) there are almost equal numbers of glia cells and neurons.
D)the ratio of cells is unknown because of the complexity of the nervous system
E) there are neurons only

In the human nervous system:

A) most of the cells are neurons.
B) most of the cells are glia cells. *
C) there are almost equal numbers of glia cells and neurons.
D)the ratio of cells is unknown because of the complexity of the nervous system
E) there are neurons only

3

Neuroglia

A) comprise about one-half of the tissue in the CNS.
B) retain mitotic potential but do not conduct nerve impulses.
C) support and protect neurons.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

Neuroglia

A) comprise about one-half of the tissue in the CNS.
B) retain mitotic potential but do not conduct nerve impulses.
C) support and protect neurons.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. *

4

Grey matter

A) consists of neuron cell bodies, neuroglia and unmyelinated nerve fibres.
B) is found at the periphery of the spinal cord.
C) may be found in clusters called ganglia in the central nervous system.
D) may be found in clusters called nuclei in the peripheral nervous system.
E) All of the above are correct.

Grey matter

A) consists of neuron cell bodies, neuroglia and unmyelinated nerve fibres. *
B) is found at the periphery of the spinal cord.
C) may be found in clusters called ganglia in the central nervous system.
D) may be found in clusters called nuclei in the peripheral nervous system.
E) All of the above are correct.

5

White matter in the CNS consists of:

A) myelinated nerve fibres.
B) neuroglia.
C) axons.
D) cell bodies
E) white blood cells

White matter in the CNS consists of:

A) myelinated nerve fibres. *
B) neuroglia.
C) axons.
D) cell bodies
E) white blood cells

6

Astrocytes attach to:

A) neurons.
B) oligodendrocytes.
C) blood vessels.
D) both A and C.
E) A and B and C above.

Astrocytes attach to:

A) neurons.
B) oligodendrocytes.
C) blood vessels.
D) both A and C. *
E) A and B and C above.

7

One of the components of the blood-brain barrier is:

A) astrocytes.
B) neurons.
C) myelin.
D) oligodendrocytes.
E) Schwann cells

One of the components of the blood-brain barrier is:

A) astrocytes. *
B) neurons.
C) myelin.
D) oligodendrocytes.
E) Schwann cells

8

Which of the following statements does not apply to ependymal cells?

A) They form the sheets of cells that line fluid-filled cavities in the brain.
B) They make up part of the blood-brain barrier.
C) They produce fluid that fills the cavities in the brain.
D) They have cilia to move fluid in the brain.
E) All of the above.

Which of the following statements does not apply to ependymal cells?

A) They form the sheets of cells that line fluid-filled cavities in the brain.
B) They make up part of the blood-brain barrier. *
C) They produce fluid that fills the cavities in the brain.
D) They have cilia to move fluid in the brain.
E) All of the above.

9

Neurons have:

A) complete regeneration capacity.
B) no regeneration capacity.
C) very limited capacity to repair themselves.
D) amazingly rapid and effective regeneration capacity compared with other cells.
E) none of the above.

Neurons have:

A) complete regeneration capacity.
B) no regeneration capacity.
C) very limited capacity to repair themselves. *
D) amazingly rapid and effective regeneration capacity compared with other cells.
E) none of the above.

10

Which of the following provide protection for the spinal cord?

A) vertebra
B) meninges
C) cerebrospinal fluid
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

Which of the following provide protection for the spinal cord?

A) vertebra
B) meninges
C) cerebrospinal fluid
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct. *

11

Which of the following is NOT true?

A) The dura mater is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
B) The epidural space is filled with interstitial fluid.
C) The arachnoid mater is the most vascular meninx.
D) The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
E) The pia mater adheres directly to the spinal cord (and brain).
12) The spinal nerves

Which of the following is NOT true?

A) The dura mater is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
B) The epidural space is filled with interstitial fluid.
C) The arachnoid mater is the most vascular meninx. *
D) The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
E) The pia mater adheres directly to the spinal cord (and brain).
12) The spinal nerves

12

A) allow communication between the spinal cord and the brain.
B) have posterior sensory roots. *
C) have anterior root ganglia containing cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) have posterior motor roots.
E) exit the vertebral column anteriorly between the intervertebral discs and the vertebral bodies.

A) allow communication between the spinal cord and the brain.
B) have posterior sensory roots. *
C) have anterior root ganglia containing cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) have posterior motor roots.
E) exit the vertebral column anteriorly between the intervertebral discs and the vertebral bodies.

13

Spinal nerves are

A) identified based on the region and level of the vertebral column from which they emerge.
B) are mixed nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers.
C) are all aligned with their corresponding vertebrae.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct

Spinal nerves are

A) identified based on the region and level of the vertebral column from which they emerge.
B) are mixed nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers.
C) are all aligned with their corresponding vertebrae.
D) A and B are correct. *
E) A, B and C are correct

14

There are _____ enlargements of the spinal cord where nerves supplying the extremities enter and leave.

A) two
B) three
C) four
D) five
E) six

There are _____ enlargements of the spinal cord where nerves supplying the extremities enter and leave.

A) two *
B) three
C) four
D) five
E) six

15

The spinal cord
A) controls the reticular activating system.
B) stores reflexive memory.
C) forms memory engrams.
D) links the peripheral nervous system to the brain.
E) is characterized by conscious activity.

The spinal cord
A) controls the reticular activating system.
B) stores reflexive memory.
C) forms memory engrams.
D) links the peripheral nervous system to the brain. *
E) is characterized by conscious activity.

16

The conus medullaris

A) anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx.
B) is a tapered, cone like region immediately inferior to the lumbar enlargement.
C) marks the exit of nerves to the upper extremity.
D) is located adjacent to the foramen magnum.
E) is inferior to the cauda equina

The conus medullaris

A) anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx.
B) is a tapered, cone like region immediately inferior to the lumbar enlargement. *
C) marks the exit of nerves to the upper extremity.
D) is located adjacent to the foramen magnum.
E) is inferior to the cauda equina

17

The thickest of the meninges is the

A) pia mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) subdural space.
D) subarachnoid space.
E) dura mater.

The thickest of the meninges is the

A) pia mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) subdural space.
D) subarachnoid space.
E) dura mater. *

18

There are ________ cervical spinal nerves.

A) eight
B) twelve
C) six
D) five
E) fourteen

There are ________ cervical spinal nerves.

A) eight *
B) twelve
C) six
D) five
E) fourteen

19

Dermatomal maps are important clinically because they

A) can be used to check for motor function.
B) locate the position of cranial nerves.
C) can be used to help locate nerve damage.
D) indicate what muscles are innervated by each spinal nerve.
E) can be used to detect cranial nerve damage.

Dermatomal maps are important clinically because they

A) can be used to check for motor function.
B) locate the position of cranial nerves.
C) can be used to help locate nerve damage. *
D) indicate what muscles are innervated by each spinal nerve.
E) can be used to detect cranial nerve damage.

20

The cutaneous sensory distribution of a spinal nerve can be mapped as a

A) dermatome.
B) plexitome.
C) microtome.
D) myotome.
E) superdome

The cutaneous sensory distribution of a spinal nerve can be mapped as a

A) dermatome. *
B) plexitome.
C) microtome.
D) myotome.
E) superdome

21

The grey matter of the spinal cord

A) is primarily found at the periphery of the cord.
B) contains the myelinated axons of motor neurons.
C) contains the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons.
D) excludes neuroglia.
E) is shaped like the letter C or a caterpillar

The grey matter of the spinal cord

A) is primarily found at the periphery of the cord.
B) contains the myelinated axons of motor neurons.
C) contains the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. *
D) excludes neuroglia.
E) is shaped like the letter C or a caterpillar

22

The spinal cord

A) is flattened somewhat laterally.
B) is characterized by thoracic and sacral enlargements.
C) is longer than the vertebral column.
D) is contiguous with the medulla oblongata.
E) is tapered into a cone called the conus medullaris at its superior end.

The spinal cord

A) is flattened somewhat laterally.
B) is characterized by thoracic and sacral enlargements.
C) is longer than the vertebral column.
D) is contiguous with the medulla oblongata. *
E) is tapered into a cone called the conus medullaris at its superior end.

23

The spinal cord ends at vertebra L1 in a narrowed area called the:
A) cauda equine.
B) filum terminale.
C) conus medullaris.
D) funiculi terminale.
E) conus terminalis

The spinal cord ends at vertebra L1 in a narrowed area called the:
A) cauda equine.
B) filum terminale.
C) conus medullaris. *
D) funiculi terminale.
E) conus terminalis

24

The brain

A) is the centre of both motor and sensory processing.
B) is the centre of emotion, intellect, memory and behavior.
C) is composed of trillions of neurons and thousands of neuroglia.
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

The brain

A) is the centre of both motor and sensory processing.
B) is the centre of emotion, intellect, memory and behavior.
C) is composed of trillions of neurons and thousands of neuroglia.
D) A and B are correct. *
E) A, B and C are correct.

25

Which blood vessels supply the brain with blood?

A) vertebral arteries
B) internal carotid arteries
C) external carotid arteries
D) A and B are correct.
E) A, B and C are correct.

Which blood vessels supply the brain with blood?

A) vertebral arteries
B) internal carotid arteries
C) external carotid arteries
D) A and B are correct. *
E) A, B and C are correct.

26

William was recently involved in a serious automobile accident. As a result, he has had difficulty controlling his skeletal muscles and maintaining his balance. What part of the nervous system was most likely damaged?

A) Cerebellum
B) Cerebral cortex
C) Myelin sheath of the peripheral neurons
D) Pineal gland
E) Hypothalamus

William was recently involved in a serious automobile accident. As a result, he has had difficulty controlling his skeletal muscles and maintaining his balance. What part of the nervous system was most likely damaged?

A) Cerebellum *
B) Cerebral cortex
C) Myelin sheath of the peripheral neurons
D) Pineal gland
E) Hypothalamus

27

Jeffery contracted bulbar poliomyelitis, and it has affected the medulla oblongata. The doctors warned the family that his condition is grave and death may be imminent. What function of the medulla oblongata has warranted such a dire prognosis?

A) The medulla oblongata contains the vital centers that control heart action, blood vessel diameter, and respiration.
B) The medulla oblongata contains the neural connections of the reticular activating system.
C) The medulla oblongata contains the pineal gland, which controls vital centers.
D) The medulla oblongata contains the corpora quadrigemina, which controls neural transmission of impulses along the spinal cord.
E) None of the above.

Jeffery contracted bulbar poliomyelitis, and it has affected the medulla oblongata. The doctors warned the family that his condition is grave and death may be imminent. What function of the medulla oblongata has warranted such a dire prognosis?

A) The medulla oblongata contains the vital centers that control heart action, blood vessel diameter, and respiration. *
B) The medulla oblongata contains the neural connections of the reticular activating system.
C) The medulla oblongata contains the pineal gland, which controls vital centers.
D) The medulla oblongata contains the corpora quadrigemina, which controls neural transmission of impulses along the spinal cord.
E) None of the above.

28

Which of the following statements concerning the brainstem is true?

A) The brainstem consists of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
B) The brainstem is responsible for higher level thinking skills.
C) Damage to the brainstem is usually fatal.
D) All twelve cranial nerves enter or exit from the brainstem.
E) The brainstem is a relay for sensory input.

Which of the following statements concerning the brainstem is true?

A) The brainstem consists of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
B) The brainstem is responsible for higher level thinking skills.
C) Damage to the brainstem is usually fatal. *
D) All twelve cranial nerves enter or exit from the brainstem.
E) The brainstem is a relay for sensory input.

29

In the CNS, clusters of grey matter containing cell bodies are called

A) nuclei.
B) pyramids.
C) tracts.
D) peduncles.
E) ganglia.

In the CNS, clusters of grey matter containing cell bodies are called

A) nuclei. *
B) pyramids.
C) tracts.
D) peduncles.
E) ganglia.

30

The fact that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body is explained by the

A) division of the cerebrum into two hemispheres.
B) division of the cerebellum into two hemispheres.
C) decussation of the pyramids in the medulla.
D) need for contra-lateral control of body function.
E) brainstem being below the midbrain.

The fact that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body is explained by the

A) division of the cerebrum into two hemispheres.
B) division of the cerebellum into two hemispheres.
C) decussation of the pyramids in the medulla. *
D) need for contra-lateral control of body function.
E) brainstem being below the midbrain.

31

Which of the following is correctly associated with the medulla oblongata?

A) It gives rise to conscious thoughts.
B) It contains nuclei for regulation of heart rate and blood vessel diameter.
C) It contains enlargements called cerebral peduncles.
D) It is the most superior portion of the brainstem.
E) It relays sensory information.

Which of the following is correctly associated with the medulla oblongata?

A) It gives rise to conscious thoughts.
B) It contains nuclei for regulation of heart rate and blood vessel diameter. *
C) It contains enlargements called cerebral peduncles.
D) It is the most superior portion of the brainstem.
E) It relays sensory information.

32

A small lesion in the brainstem which resulted in a rapid heart rate, intense vasoconstriction, and elevated blood pressure would probably be located in the

A) medulla oblongata
B) pons
C) cerebellum
D) hypothalamus
E) cerebrum

A small lesion in the brainstem which resulted in a rapid heart rate, intense vasoconstriction, and elevated blood pressure would probably be located in the

A) medulla oblongata *
B) pons
C) cerebellum
D) hypothalamus
E) cerebrum

33

Which of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?

A) coordinate control of voluntary movements
B) help in the maintenance of muscle tone
C) control the heart rate
D) control skeletal muscles to maintain balance
E) control of posture, locomotion, and fine motor coordination

Which of the following is not a function of the cerebellum?

A) coordinate control of voluntary movements
B) help in the maintenance of muscle tone
C) control the heart rate *
D) control skeletal muscles to maintain balance
E) control of posture, locomotion, and fine motor coordination

34

The cerebral gyri increase

A) memory assimilation time.
B) the surface area of the cortex.
C) the size of the thalamic nuclei.
D) speech ability.
E) volume of the brain.

The cerebral gyri increase

A) memory assimilation time.
B) the surface area of the cortex. *
C) the size of the thalamic nuclei.
D) speech ability.
E) volume of the brain.

35

The central sulcus separates the

A) two parietal lobes.
B) frontal and parietal lobes.
C) occipital and temporal lobes.
D) temporal and frontal lobes.
E) parietal and occipital lobes

The central sulcus separates the

A) two parietal lobes.
B) frontal and parietal lobes. *
C) occipital and temporal lobes.
D) temporal and frontal lobes.
E) parietal and occipital lobes

36

The lateral fissure separates the _____ from the rest of the cerebrum.

A) frontal lobe
B) parietal lobe
C) occipital lobe
D) temporal lobe
E) cerebellum

The lateral fissure separates the _____ from the rest of the cerebrum.

A) frontal lobe
B) parietal lobe
C) occipital lobe
D) temporal lobe *
E) cerebellum

37

Which of the following is not a lobe of the cerebrum?

A) parietal
B) frontal
C) occipital
D) sphenoidal
E) temporal

Which of the following is not a lobe of the cerebrum?

A) parietal
B) frontal
C) occipital
D) sphenoidal *
E) temporal

38

The grey matter on the outer surface of the cerebrum is called the

A) cortex.
B) pia mater.
C) reticular formation.
D) arbor vitae.
E) cerebral medulla

The grey matter on the outer surface of the cerebrum is called the

A) cortex. *
B) pia mater.
C) reticular formation.
D) arbor vitae.
E) cerebral medulla

39

The corpus callosum

A) consists of a broad band of grey matter.
B) is found at the base of the transverse fissure.
C) is a band of commissural fibres that connects the right cerebral hemisphere to the left cerebral hemisphere.
D) connects the frontal lobe to the occipital lobe.
E) connects the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe.

The corpus callosum

A) consists of a broad band of grey matter.
B) is found at the base of the transverse fissure.
C) is a band of commissural fibres that connects the right cerebral hemisphere to the left cerebral hemisphere. *
D) connects the frontal lobe to the occipital lobe.
E) connects the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe.

40

The most superficial meningeal layer is

A) the pia mater.
B) the arachnoid layer.
C) the dura mater.
D) the epidural sinus.
E) the skull.

The most superficial meningeal layer is

A) the pia mater.
B) the arachnoid layer.
C) the dura mater. *
D) the epidural sinus.
E) the skull.

41

Cerebrospinal fluid fills the

A) subarachnoid space.
B) subdural space.
C) dural sinuses.
D) epidural space.
E) none of the above

Cerebrospinal fluid fills the

A) subarachnoid space. *
B) subdural space.
C) dural sinuses.
D) epidural space.
E) none of the above

42

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by tissue in the walls and roofs of the

A) subarachnoid space.
B) dural sinuses.
C) fissure of Sylvius.
D) ventricles of the brain.
E) subdural space.

Cerebrospinal fluid is formed by tissue in the walls and roofs of the

A) subarachnoid space.
B) dural sinuses.
C) fissure of Sylvius.
D) ventricles of the brain. *
E) subdural space.

43

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ____ and is reabsorbed by the ____.

A) choroid plexus, arachnoid granulation
B) arachnoid granulation, choroid plexus
C) dural sinus, dura mater
D) dura mater, dural sinus
E) septa pellucida, cerebral aqueduct

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the ____ and is reabsorbed by the ____.

A) choroid plexus, arachnoid granulation *
B) arachnoid granulation, choroid plexus
C) dural sinus, dura mater
D) dura mater, dural sinus
E) septa pellucida, cerebral aqueduct

44

If cerebrospinal fluid does not drain properly,

A) the brain will shrink and shrivel.
B) the excess fluid exerts pressure on the brain.
C) the cerebral cortex absorbs the fluid and swells.
D) the choroid plexus enlarges.
E) the arachnoid granulations halt their function.

If cerebrospinal fluid does not drain properly,

A) the brain will shrink and shrivel.
B) the excess fluid exerts pressure on the brain. *
C) the cerebral cortex absorbs the fluid and swells.
D) the choroid plexus enlarges.
E) the arachnoid granulations halt their function.

45

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?

A) provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues
B) provides buoyant support for the brain
C) acts as a transport medium for nutrients
D) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission
E) acts as a transport medium for chemical messengers

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?

A) provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues
B) provides buoyant support for the brain
C) acts as a transport medium for nutrients
D) provides a medium for nerve impulse transmission *
E) acts as a transport medium for chemical messengers

46

A ______________ is the electrically excitable cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system.


A ______________ is the electrically excitable cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system.
Answer: neuron

47

The _________________ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

The _________________ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
Answer: central

48

The fluid produced by the choroid plexuses is ______________________________.

The fluid produced by the choroid plexuses is ______________________________.
Answer: cerebrospinal fluid

49

The ___________________________ regulates vital functions such as heart and respiration rate as well as nonvital functions such has hiccupping and sneezing.

The ___________________________ regulates vital functions such as heart and respiration rate as well as nonvital functions such has hiccupping and sneezing.
Answer: medulla oblongata

50

The ___________________ is the part of the brain that helps maintain posture and balance. It also coordinates actual with intended movements.

The ___________________ is the part of the brain that helps maintain posture and balance. It also coordinates actual with intended movements.
Answer: cerebellum

51

The _________________________ plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling the autonomic nervous system, secreting hormones that control the pituitary gland and regulating behaviors such has feeding, thirst and sexual arousal.


The _________________________ plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling the autonomic nervous system, secreting hormones that control the pituitary gland and regulating behaviors such has feeding, thirst and sexual arousal.
Answer: hypothalamus

52

A ______________ is a raised area or convolution on the surface of the cerebrum.

A ______________ is a raised area or convolution on the surface of the cerebrum.
Answer: gyrus

53

The __________________________ gyrus is the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex.

The __________________________ gyrus is the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex.
Answer: postcentral gyrus

54

A ___________________________________ is sometimes called a stroke or a brain attack.


A ___________________________________ is sometimes called a stroke or a brain attack.
Answer: cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

55

Brain mass __________________ during the first years of life due to growth and myelination of neurons as well as reproduction of neuroglia.

Brain mass __________________ during the first years of life due to growth and myelination of neurons as well as reproduction of neuroglia.
Answer: increases

56

___________________is a loss of intellectual abilities and is often accompanied by personality changes; it is associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, AIDS and other disorders.

___________________is a loss of intellectual abilities and is often accompanied by personality changes; it is associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, AIDS and other disorders.
Answer: Dementia

57

____________________________ is the link between the brain and spinal cord.

____________________________ is the link between the brain and spinal cord.
Answer: White matter

58

The brain constitutes 2% of total body weight and uses ___% of the body’s oxygen consumption.

The brain constitutes 2% of total body weight and uses ___% of the body’s oxygen consumption.
Answer: 20%

59

Clinical manifestations of headache, stiff neck, and high fever are indicative of _________________

Clinical manifestations of headache, stiff neck, and high fever are indicative of _________________
Answer: meningitis