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List the 2 primary curves and the 2 secondary curves

2 primary - kyphotic
- thoracic
- sacral

2 secondary - lordotic
- cervical
- lumbar


How do the secondary curves develop?

developed as we grow (tummy time) then continue to develop as we develop to crawling and sitting


What is the advantage of a curved vertebral column as opposed to a straight rod?

- allows for transmission of forces - increased ability to resist compressive load
- area of transitions are weaker


Define what the motion segment is

- functional unit of the spine
- consists of any 2 adjacent vertebrae, intervertebral disc, and soft tissue that secures them


Describe what happens in a bilateral fracture at the pars interarticularis. Where is this most likely to occur in the spine and why?

- fractures occurs because of insufficient cortical bone
- results in forward slipping of vertebra (spondylolisthesis)
- most common at L5/S1


What transmits tension and bending forces from posterior elements to vertebral body?



What is the portion of laminae between superior and inferior articular processes? What stress is it subject to?

- pars intearticularis of Laminae
- subject to bending forces


What forms the articular pillar?

articular processes AKA zygapophyseal joint


What is the function of lamina?

transmit forces from the articular, transverse and spinous processes to the pedicles


What determines size of intervertebral discs?

amount of motion and magnitude of the load that is being transmitted


How is available motion determined in intervertebral disc? Where is motion the greatest-least?

- ratio of disc height to vertebral body height
- larger ratio = greater movement
- greatest in cervical, lumbar, then least in thoracic


What activities and body positions place the most amount of pressure on the intervertebral discs? How can you use this information when educating patients on lifting mechanics?

- high disc pressure when holding load in front with forward bending
- slouching produces greater disc pressure than sitting erect
- used to teach proper lifting and sitting techniques to reduce disc pressure


What 2 factors affect available motion of articular process and facets?

shape and orientation


What is the function of anterior longitudinal ligament?

- limit extenision
- reinforce anterolateral portion of anulus fibrosus and anterior aspect of intervertebral joints


What is the function of posterior longitudinal ligament?

- limits forward flexion and reinforces posterior portion of the anulus fibrosus


What is the function of ligamentum flavum?

limits forward flexion, particularly in lumbar


What is the function of interspinous ligaments?

limits forward flexion


what is the function of supraspinous ligaments?

limits forward flexion


What is the function of intertransverse ligaments?

limits contralateral lateral flexion


What is the function of facet joint capsules?

limits motion and adds stability


describe joint coupling

association of one motion around an axis with another motion around another axis
ex: lateral flexion and rotation


Coupling patterns vary based on what?

- spinal posture
- spinal curvature
- orientation of articulating facets
- fluidity/elasticity/thickness of the discs
- extensibility of the muscles, ligaments, and joint capsules


what part of motion segment determines magnitude of movement?

interbody joints - distributes load and creates space for movement and passage of the spinal nerve roots


what part of motion segment determines direction of movement?

facet joints - "train tracts" that are influenced by geometry, height, and spinal orientation


List the osteokinematic motions that occur in the vertebral column

- flexion/extenison
- lateral flexion/sidebending
- rotation


When describing the arthrokinematics motion occurring at a motion segment we are describing the motion that is occurring by which segment moving on which segment?

superior segment on inferior segment


When we move into flexion, what happens to the posterior aspect of the motion segment? What happens to the anterior aspect of the motion segment?

- anterior tilt and anterior glide of superior vertebra

- posterior - distraction of annulus fibrosis
- anterior - anterior compression of annulus fibrosis


What structures limit the amount of spinal flexion available?

- supraspinous and interspinous ligaments
- tension in facet joint capsules
- ligamentum flava
- posterior longitudinal ligament
- posterior anulus fibrosus
- back extensors


When we move into extension, what happens to the posterior aspect of the motion segment? What happens to the anterior aspect of the motion segment?

- posterior tilt and posterior glide of the superior vertebra

- posterior - compression of annulus fibrosis
- anterior - distraction of annulus fibrosis


What structures limit the amount of extension available?

- bony contact of spinous processes
- tension in facet joint capsuls
- anterior longitudinal ligament
- anterior anulus fibrosis
- anterior trunk muscles