Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (40)
Identify and describe the characteristics of the atypical vertebrae in the thoracic spine.
T1 - cervical-shaped body w/ long and prominent spinous process
T12 - thoracic like superior facets and lumbar like inferior facets
- T10 and T11 - Full costal facets as opposed to demifacets – ribs at these vertebras only articulate w/ 1 vertebra
Identify and describe the characteristics of the typical vertebrae in the thoracic spine.
- demifacets (ribs touch both vertebra)
- smallest ratio of disc height to vertebrae height
- face posteriorly, not laterally - Results in narrowing of vertebral canal that limits motions
Describe the facet joint orientation for the thoracic spine. What motion(s) does this orientation allow for?
- 20 degrees off frontal plane
- allows for greater motion into lateral flexion and rotation and less flexion/extension
What structures limit flexion in the thoracic spine?
posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligaments and capsule of facet joints
What structures limit extension in the thoracic spine?
contact of spinous processes, laminae, facet joints and tension from ALL, facet joint capsule and abdominal muscles
What structures limit lateral flexion in thoracic spine?
facets and ribs
What structure limits rotation in thoracic spine?
Describe the spinal coupling relationship in the upper thoracic spine
- lateral flexion and rotation are coupled in the same direction
Describe the spinal coupling relationship in the lower thoracic spine
- lateral flexion and rotation are coupled in the opposite direction
What are the osteokinematic motions at thoracic spine?
- lateral flexion/side bending
What are arthrokinematics of thoracic facet joints during flexion/extension?
- flexion - slides superior and anterior
- extension - slides inferior and posterior
Is there a greater degree of flexion/extension in upper or lower thoracic spine? Why?
lower b/c facet joints have more sagittal orientation
What are arthrokinematics of UPPER thoracic facet joints during lateral flexion/side bending?
- ipsilateral - inferior and posterior slide
- contralateral - superior and anterior slide
What are arthrokinematics of UPPER thoracic facet joints during rotation?
- ipsilateral - posterior and inferior
- contralateral - anterior and superior
What are arthrokinematics of LOWER thoracic facet joints during lateral flexion/side bending?
- ipsilateral - inferior and anterior slide
- contralateral - superior and posterior slide
What are arthrokinematics of LOWER thoracic facet joints during rotation?
- ipsilateral - posterior and superior slide
- contralateral - anterior and inferior slide
Describe the orientation and axis of movement in the upper ribs and the lower ribs.
- sagittal plane (anterior/posterior)
- pump handle motion
- frontal plane (medial/lateral)
- bucket handle motion
Identify and describe the characteristics of the atypical vertebrae in the lumbar spine.
- wedge shaped - b/c of angulation of sacrum
- smaller spinous process - allows for extension
- large transverse process
Identify and describe the characteristics of the typical vertebrae in the lumbar spine.
- large transverse diameter
- mamillary and accessory processes for multifidus attachment
- triangular vertebral foramen
What makes the facet joints of the lumbar spine unique?
- curved and biplanar
aligned w/ sagittal plane (restricts rotation)
Describe the facet joint orientation for the lumbar spine anteriorly. What motion(s) does this orientation allow for?
- anteriorly aligned w/ frontal plane (resists anterior shear force)
- allows for lateral flexion
Describe the facet joint orientation for the lumbar spine posteriorly. What motion(s) does this orientation allow for? What motion(s) does this orientation restrict?
- posterior aligned w/ sagittal plane (restricts rotation)
- allows for flexion/extension
What is the lumbosacral angle? What structures resist the natural shearing force that occurs at this transitional zone?
- angle formed by L5 and S1
- resists natural shearing force - intervertebral disc, facet joint capsules, anterior longitudinal ligament, and iliolumbar ligaments
How does an increased lumbosacral angle impact lordosis of the lumbar spine?
- increases the angle which increases shear forces on lumbar spine
What is spondylolisthesis?
slipping of L5 from S1
Describe the characteristics of the lumbar spine intervertebral discs and why they are important to the function of the lumbar spine.
- largest discs in spine
- annulus fibrosis has alternating layers (lamellae) to resist tensile forces in all direction
- disc has posterior concavity to increase surface area (increase ability to resist tension)
What is unique about the coupling relationship of lateral flexion and rotation in the lumbar spine?
pattern is inconsistent
Arthrokinematics of lumbar flexion. What plane is it and what are the motions?
- sagittal plane - lower lumbar
- superior and anterior
Arthrokinematics of lumbar extension. What plane is it and what are the motions?
- sagittal plane - lower lumbar
- inferior and posterior