What is natural variation?
This is heritable and will either aid or hinder our chances of survival
What is natural selection?
Adaptive characteristics that aid survival will be more likely to be passed on
What is sexual selection?
We select mates by their characeristics such as how women prefer stronger men as they can protect offspring
Does sexual selection affect men or women more strongly?
Women have a stronger preference for certain traits, men are less fussy
What is one big problem with studying evolutionary psychology?
We can’t go back to test hypothesis. We can only look at modern traits and see how they match up with what we’d expect
What are the main features of characteristics that are developed through evolution?
They are functional - have purpose
How has evolution impacted memory?
We’re more easily able to remember things related to our survival or hunting in tribes as this has been more evolutionary relevant for us
Do men or women have more parental investment in offspring?
Women as they need to put more into their children - they are therefore more selective over mates
What is the traditional evolutionary view on individual differences?
Individual differences reflect random variation in genetics so is irrelevant
What is the modern view on individual differences?
Traits reflect a range of stratergies, all of which are equally adaptive so there is no optimum
What is stabalizing selection?
Variation reduces over time and more and more people are at the optimum
What is directional selection?
Environmental pressures push characeristics in a specific direction
What is fluctuating selection?
No consistant pattern as pressures change from generation to generation
No long term trend
What is negative frequency dependent selection?
The adaptiveness of a characteristic depends on how many people share it.
Who came up with life history theory?
What is life history theory?
People use different stratergies to maximise survival and reproductin but they must trade off the costs and benifits of each one
What is K factor?
How much you prioritise mating effort vs parental investment
Sleeping around vs commiting
What factors are needed for someone to be high in K factor?
Strong attatchment to their own father and to their partner
What factors are needed for someone to be low in K-factor?
High effort to attract mates
High risk taking
Why do we see individual differences in K-factor?
One dimension is not more adaptive than another so there is no stabalising or directional process
Why do we think the big 5 are evolutionary?
Seen in animals
Are relevant for aiding survival and reproduction when living in groups
How is openness linked to evolution?
Helps with teamwork and problem solving but also being open can be dangerous in high risk environments
How is conscientiousness linked to evolution?
Being organised and aware of things means you’re less likely to find yourself in danger
However, it can lead to inflexiable thinking styles
How is extraversion linked to evolution?
You’re more likley to meet new people so mating can increase
Associated with more sexual partners but higher cheating
How is agreeableness linked to evolution?
Reciprocal pro-social behaviour
Good for social cohesion
Some people might take advantage of it
How is neuroticism linked to evolution?
High anxiety means you’re more vigalent to dangers
But associated with mental illness which is bad for health and mates