Week 2: Evolutionary Theories of Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2: Evolutionary Theories of Personality Deck (26)
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1
Q

What is natural variation?

A

This is heritable and will either aid or hinder our chances of survival

2
Q

What is natural selection?

A

Adaptive characteristics that aid survival will be more likely to be passed on

3
Q

What is sexual selection?

A

We select mates by their characeristics such as how women prefer stronger men as they can protect offspring

4
Q

Does sexual selection affect men or women more strongly?

A

Women have a stronger preference for certain traits, men are less fussy

5
Q

What is one big problem with studying evolutionary psychology?

A

We can’t go back to test hypothesis. We can only look at modern traits and see how they match up with what we’d expect

6
Q

What are the main features of characteristics that are developed through evolution?

A

They are functional - have purpose
Domain specific
Numerous

7
Q

How has evolution impacted memory?

A

We’re more easily able to remember things related to our survival or hunting in tribes as this has been more evolutionary relevant for us

8
Q

Do men or women have more parental investment in offspring?

A

Women as they need to put more into their children - they are therefore more selective over mates

9
Q

What is the traditional evolutionary view on individual differences?

A

Individual differences reflect random variation in genetics so is irrelevant

10
Q

What is the modern view on individual differences?

A

Traits reflect a range of stratergies, all of which are equally adaptive so there is no optimum

11
Q

What is stabalizing selection?

A

Variation reduces over time and more and more people are at the optimum

12
Q

What is directional selection?

A

Environmental pressures push characeristics in a specific direction

13
Q

What is fluctuating selection?

A

No consistant pattern as pressures change from generation to generation

No long term trend

14
Q

What is negative frequency dependent selection?

A

The adaptiveness of a characteristic depends on how many people share it.

15
Q

Who came up with life history theory?

A

Wilson

16
Q

What is life history theory?

A

People use different stratergies to maximise survival and reproductin but they must trade off the costs and benifits of each one

K-factor

17
Q

What is K factor?

A

How much you prioritise mating effort vs parental investment

Sleeping around vs commiting

18
Q

What factors are needed for someone to be high in K factor?

A

Strong attatchment to their own father and to their partner

19
Q

What factors are needed for someone to be low in K-factor?

A

High effort to attract mates
High machiavellianism
High risk taking

20
Q

Why do we see individual differences in K-factor?

A

One dimension is not more adaptive than another so there is no stabalising or directional process

21
Q

Why do we think the big 5 are evolutionary?

A

Universal
Seen in animals
Moderate/High heritability
Are relevant for aiding survival and reproduction when living in groups

22
Q

How is openness linked to evolution?

A

Helps with teamwork and problem solving but also being open can be dangerous in high risk environments

23
Q

How is conscientiousness linked to evolution?

A

Being organised and aware of things means you’re less likely to find yourself in danger

However, it can lead to inflexiable thinking styles

24
Q

How is extraversion linked to evolution?

A

You’re more likley to meet new people so mating can increase
Associated with more sexual partners but higher cheating
More children

25
Q

How is agreeableness linked to evolution?

A

Reciprocal pro-social behaviour
Good for social cohesion
Some people might take advantage of it

26
Q

How is neuroticism linked to evolution?

A

High anxiety means you’re more vigalent to dangers

But associated with mental illness which is bad for health and mates