What are the main features of psychopathology?
Deviant from the social, statistical and political norm
Impairing our ability to function (maladaptive and harmful)
Distressing both to the person and to those around them
Not explained as an immediate response to an event
What was the first widely held explanation for pathology?
Why did people believe that pathology was caused by demon posession?
It’s often accompanied by a change in personality which gave the impression the person inside had been replaced by a demon
What were the early treatments for pathology
Animal blood transfusions
Who was the first person to argue that madness was an issue of the mind and not caused by demons?
What is the medical model?
The idea that mental illness has a physical cause
What profession has the medical model of mental illness led to?
What were early treatments for the medical model?
What are the weaknesses of the medical model?
What was the purpose of token economies in mental health hospitals?
They were used to encourage pro-social behaviour and had some sucess
What biological explanations for pathology have been proposed?
Neurobiology (Brain regions)
What are concordance studies?
By examining how pathology differs across family members, we can identify which elements are heritable
What psychological models have been proposed to explain pathology
According to the psychodynamic approach, what is the cause of pathology?
Conflict between the ego, superego and id
How is pathology treated in the humanistic approach?
Treated with client-centered therapy which aims to provide unconditional positive regard
What is the current model for understanding pathoogy?
What is the diathesis stress model?
It argues that predisposition interacts with stress to produce mental illness