Week 2: Growth & Development Flashcards Preview

530 Health Assessment > Week 2: Growth & Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2: Growth & Development Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...

What are the classifications by gestational age (4)?

Pre-term: <34 weeks
Late pre-term: 34-36 weeks
Term: 37-42 weeks
Post-term: >42 weeks


What are the complications associated with preterm (3) and post-term babies (3)?

Pre-term/late preterm: respiratory, cardiovascular, neurodevelopment

Post-term: increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity related to asphyxia and meconium aspiration


What are the classifications by birth weight (4)?

Extremely low birth weight <1000g
Very low birth weight <1500g
Low birth weight <2500g
Normal: >/=2500g


What are the classifications by size for gestational age?

Small for gestational age (SGA): <10th percentile
Appropriate for gestational age (AGA): 10th-90th percentile
Large for gestational age (LGA): >90th percentile


Causes and complications of:
small for gestational age

Which term is most likely to experience complications?

causes: unknown, but may be related to placental issues, known link to maternal smoking
complications: hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, asphyxia

Preterm SGA


What are preterm AGA babies at risk for? (5)

Preterm AGA respiratory distress syndrome, apnea, patent ductus arteriosus, L to R shunt, infection)


Causes and complications of:
large for gestational age

causes: Infants of mothers with diabetes, genetic syndromes, parents are large
Complications: hypoglycemia, difficult birth or birth injury


Newborn development

Use all 5 senses
Differences in temperaments, personalities, behavior and learning
Interact dynamically with caregivers


Define: Habituation, attachment, state regulation, perception

Habituation: ability to selectively and progressively shut out negative stimuli
Attachment: a reciprocal, dynamic process of interacting and bonding with caregiver
State regulation: ability to modulate the level of arousal in response to different degrees of stimulation
Perception: ability to regard faces, turn to voices, quiet in presence of singing, track colorful objects, respond to touch, and recognize familiar scents


Infant: growth parameters

Growth parameters: by 1 year, birth weight should have tripled and height increased by 50% from weight and height from birth


Infant development: 3 months (3)

Infants should be able to lift their head (no “head-lag”), clasp hands, coo


Infant development: 6 months (5)

Infants should be able to roll over, reach for objects, turn to voices, babble, and possibly sit with support


Infant development: 9 months (3)

Infants should have a neat pincer grasp (self-feed), indicate wants; have usually developed “stranger danger”


Infant development: 12 months (2)

Infants should be able to stand, say 1-3 words


Early childhood: growth

grow 3.5 inches and gain 4 lbs on average per year; rate of physical growth slows by approximately half


Early childhood development

Almost all children walk by 15 months, run well by 2 years, and pedal a tricycle and jump by 4 years

18 month-old: 10-20 words; 2yo: 2-3 word sentences; 3yo: converses well; 4yo: complex sentences


Middle childhood: growth

grow steadily but more slowly
Strength and coordination improve dramatically with more participation in activities


Adolescent: growth
When does puberty begin and end in girls vs. boys?

puberty begins at 10 in girls and 11 in boys
Girls end puberty with a growth spurt by age 14 and boys by age 16
Age and onset of puberty varies but follows a typical set of stages


Cognitive stages: Preoperational
What ages?
Define (3 major concepts)

without sustained, logical thought process
Drive for independence
Impulsive and have poor self-regulation, temper tantrums


Cognitive stages: concrete operational
What ages?
Define (8 major concepts)

capable of limited logic and more complex learning
Remain rooted in present with little ability to understand consequences of abstractions
School, family and environment greatly influence learning
Major developmental task = self-efficacy
Language more complex
More independent
Guilt and self-esteem emerge
Clear sense of wrong/right


Cognitive stages: Concrete to formal operational thinking
What ages?
Define (3 major concepts)

ability to reason logically and abstractly and to consider future implications of current actions
Transition from family-dominated influence to increasing autonomy and peer influence
Struggle for identity, independence and intimacy leads to stress, health-related problems and often high-risk behaviors


How do you correct for prematurity?

Current age in weeks - (40-Baby's actual birth in weeks)


What are the five domains of infant/child development?

Gross motor
Fine motor
Personal/social development


What are some causes of delay in development? (5)

hereditary/genetic disorders
Environmental/social problems
Pregnancy/perinatal problems
Abnormality in embryonic development
Childhood diseases


Which children should be considered for further evaluation if abnormal growth is identified? (6)

1. Variations beyond two standard deviations for age
2. Children above the 95th percentile or below the 5th percentile
3. Reduced growth velocity
4. Drop > 2 quartiles in 6 months
5. Weight for length < 5th percentile
6. Head circumference above the 95th percentile or below the 5th percentile


How is failure to thrive defined?

growth <5th percentile for age, drop > two quartiles in 6 months or weight for length < 5th percentile