Week 2.2 - The menstrual cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2.2 - The menstrual cycle Deck (37)
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In general, What effects do oestrogen have on the gamete and the endometrium?

-Prepare the gamete for ovulation
-Prepare the endometrium for implantation


What is the function of the luteal phase?

-Hold the system in pause and maintain the endometrium until a signal is received that fertilisation has happened


In what rhythm is GnRH released?

-Pulsatile release every hour


What are the functions of FSH and LH in the female?

-Promote follicular development
-Stimulate follicular cells to produce steroid hormones and inhibin


What control do the gonadal hormones have upon HPG axis?

-Both positive and negative feedback


When does oestrogen have positive feedback effects?

-When it is high titres by itself ie the follicular phase


When does oestrogen exert negative feedback?

-When it is at moderate titres ie luteal phase


What is the dominant steroid hormone in the luteal phase?



Describe the ovarian steroid hormone levels at the start of the cycle

-No ovarian hormone production


Which hormone encourages follicular development at the start of the cycle?



Why is it that ovarian hormones drop at the end of the cycle? What effect does this have on the HPG axis?

-Follicular cells are dying and thus stop producing oestrogen/progesterone
-This resets the HPG axis as all feedback is removed as the levels are too low.
-GnRH can now work normally, causing slow release of FSH and LH


What effect does resetting the HPG axis have on the ovary?

-Recruitment of small group of follicles within ovary independent of extragonadal signals. This starts follicular development


Which cells of the ovary do FSH act on?

-Granulosa cells


When does oestrogen secretion become possible from the developing follicle? Why?

-When theca interna has developed -> has LH receptors
-Oestrogen production depends on interaction between theca and granulosa cells


What hormone, besides oestrogen, begins to be secreted from the developing follicle?



What drives the formation of a dominant follicle? (2 things)

-Follicular oestrogen now at a level where it can exert a positive feedback control at the hypothalamus and pituitary
-Follicular inhibin levels rise which selectively inhibits FSH production by anterior production


What is the consequence on gonadotropin levels of inhibin?

-Only see a rise in LH, FSH secretion inhibited


There is a rapid rise in oestrogen and inhibin at approximately day 12 (when the follicle is fully developed), what effect does this have on gonadotropin hormones?

-LH surge


Why does progesterone production begin after LH surge?

-Granulosa cells become responsive to LH as prior to this they only had FSH receptors


What effect does oestrogen exhibit on the sensitivity of anterior pituitary?why does this cause the LH surge?

-High levels of oestrogen increases sensitivity of anterior pituitary to GnRH
-Early follicular phase -> Oestrogen low-> anterior pituitary not very sensitive to GnRH -> slow release of LH
-Late follicular phase ->oestrogen high-> sensitivity of the anterior pituitary is increased -> LH surge.


How does LH contribute to ovulation?

-Causes increase in collagenase activity -> follucle membrane breakdown -> oocyte released
-Causes PG increase -> contraction of ovarian wall to help extrusion


What happens to the primary oocyte in the follicle just before ovulation?

-Meiosis 1 completes and meiosis II starts


What happens to the follicle after ovulation?

-Remains in the ovary and become leutinised under the control of LH (forms corpus luteum)


What is the function of the corpus luteum?

-Secrete oestrogen and progesterone from androgens in large quantities
-Inhibin still pruduced to inhibit FSH
-Suppresses LH secretion by putting the axis into pause as further gamete development is suspended due to negative feedback of oestrogen and progesterone


What happens to the corpus luteum in the absence of LH?

-Spontaneous regression


What happens to the hormone profile after the corpus luteum has regressed?

-The axis is reset and everything is at basal levels


What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilisation occurs?

-Syncytiotrophoblast produces hCG which has luteinising effect and maintains the corpus luteum until the placenta is sufficiently developed to take over oestrogen and progesterone production to control HPG (approx 4 months)


What are the two phases in ovarian cycle?



What are the two phases in the uterine cycle?



What causes the proliferation of the endometrium?

-Oestrogen produced from ovary