Week 7.1 - Contraception and infertility Flashcards Preview

Repro > Week 7.1 - Contraception and infertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 7.1 - Contraception and infertility Deck (29)
1

How does barrier contraception work?

-Prevents sperm reaching cervix

2

How does a diaphragm work?

-Inserted across the cervix to hold the sperm in the acidic environment to reduce survival

3

Name 4 hormonal contraceptions which prevent ovulation

-Combined OCP
-Depot progesterone
-POP (may inhibit ovulation)
-Progesterone implant (may inhibit ovulation)

4

How does the combined OCP inhibit ovulation?

-Negative feedback of oestrogen and progesterone inhibits follicular development
-loss of +ve feedback of oestrogen -> no LH surge

5

How often are depot injections?

-Every 3 months

6

How does depot progesterone inhibit ovuation?

-Negative feedback of progesterone inhibits ovulation by preventing follicular development and LH surge

7

Which contraceptions have producing a thick cervical mucus as there main method of action?

-POP
-Progesterone implant

8

How does producing thick cervical mucus act as a contraception?

-Prevents passage of sperm into cervix

9

Which hormonal contraceptions act by altering receptivity of endometrium for implantation?

-Emergency contraceptive pill
-Intrauterine devices

10

How long after coitus does the emergency contraception work?

-upto 72 hours

11

How do intrauterine devices work?

-Make endometrium hostile by interfering with endometrial enzymes

12

Name 3 methods of surgical contraception

-Ligation
-Clips
-Rings

13

What is the emergency contraceptive pill?

-High dose of combined OCP

14

Define infertility

-Failure to conceive within 1 year of trying

15

How common is infertility?

-Affects ~ 15% of couples

16

What % of infertility is due to male/female problems?

-20-25% male
-45-60% female
-20-30% unexplained

17

Give 5 causes of infertility

-Coital problems
-Anovulation
-PCOS
-Tubal occlusion
-Abnormal/Absent sperm

18

When is anovulation normal?

-Occasional, especially at extremes of age

19

List some causes of anovulation

-Ovarian failure
-Chemo/radiotherapy
-Pituitary tumour
-Weight loss
-Stress
-Exercise
-Hyperprolactinaemia

20

What is PCOS?

-Elevated androgen secretion from theca cells of unknown pathogenesis producing the PCOS phenotype of excessive hair, amenorrhea/menorrhagia, anovulation, cystic ovaries and insulin resistance

21

Give 3 causes of tubal occlusion

-Scarring from infection
-Endometriosis
-Sterilisation

22

How is tubal occlusion diagnosed?

-Hysterosalpingogram

23

Give 3 causes of absent/abnormal sperm

-Testicular disease
-Infection
-Obstruction of ductus deferens
-Hypothal/pituitary dysfunction

24

How is anovulation diagnosed?

-Serum progesterone in middle of luteal phase (~day 21)
-Differentiate between causes by looking at hormone levels

25

Give the hormone profile of a women in menopause

-High LH/FSH
-Low oestrogen

26

Give the hormone profile of a women in ovarian failure

-High LH/FSH
-Low oestrogen

27

Give the hormone profile of a women with hypothalamic failure

-Low FSH/LS/oestrogen

28

Give 2 methods of inducing ovulation and state how they work

-Anti-oestrogen -> reduced -ve feedback to hypothal/pit -> increased GnRH/LH/FSH eg aromatase inhibitor
-Gonadotropins -> stimulates FSH/LH

29

Name 3 methods of barrier contraception

-Condoms
-Diaphragm
-Cap