Week 220 - Gynaecolocial Cancers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 220 - Gynaecolocial Cancers Deck (48):
1

Week 220

What is the most common Vulval Cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

2

What type of cells are confined to where, in vulval intraepithelial Neoplasia?

Neoplastic, confined to the epithelium. 

3

Week 220

What are the cell types of the two most common cervical cancers?

Squamous Cell carcinoma (75%)

Remainder are Adenocarcinoma (25%)

 

4

Week 220

 

Of what type are most malignant uterine tumours?

The vast majority are Adenocarcinomas.

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Week 220

 

What is the second most common gynae malignancy, behind cervical?

Endometrial Adenocarcinoma.

6

Week 20

 

What is the most common type of ovarian tumour?

Surface epithelial (70%)

7

Week 220

 

What is the most common gynae epithelial tumour?

Serous Carcinoma

 

The malignant type is highly aggressive. 

8

Week 220

 

What is removed in a subtotal Hysterectomy?

The body of the uterus is the only thing removed. 

9

Week 220

 

What is removed in a total Hysterectomy?

Both the body of the uterus, and the cervix of the uterus is removed. 

10

Week 220

 

what is removed in a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooopheractomy?

The body of uterus, cervix of uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries arer all removed. 

11

Week 220

 

What is a "carcinoma"?

A cancer of (any) epithelial cells

12

Week 220

 

What is an "Adenocarcinoma"?

A cancer originating from glandular epithelial tissue.

13

Week 220

 

What is "Dysplasia"?

Disordered growth, with cells showing abnormalities e.g. mitotic forms, pleomorphism (several forms of the same thing)

14

Week 220

 

What is Neoplasia?

Abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth.

15

Week 220

 

In basic terms, what is endometrial cancer?

A malignant epithelial tumour.

16

Week 220

 

What is meant by the term "corpus cancer"?

Any cancer in the body of the uterus. 

17

Week 220

 

Endometrial Ca is most common in which group: Pre-menopausal women, or post-menopausal women?

Post-menopausal (75%)

18

Week 220

 

A raise in/high levels of which hormone is a strong risk factor for endometrial Ca?

Oestrogen

19

Week 220

 

Which Ca is the most common cause of gynae related death in the UK?

Ovarian cancer. 90% are epithelial ovarian orrigin. 

20

Week 220

 

The BRCA1 gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?

Breast and ovarian Ca.

21

Week 220

 

The BRCA2 gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?

Breast, pancreatic and ovarian. 

22

Week 220

 

The HNPCC gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?

Colorectal, endometrial and ovarian. 

23

Week 220

 

Which anti-cancer therapy uised in the treatment of breast cancer increases the risk of ovarian cancer?

Tamoxifen

24

Week 220

 

What is the most common route of metastatic disease spread in ovarian carcinoma?

Intraperitoneal dissemination - via ascites. 

25

Week 220

 

Which sexually transmitted viral infection is thought to be a causative factor of 70% of cervical Ca cases?

HPV (16 & 18)

26

Week 220

 

What is the most common type of cervical Ca?

Squamous Carcinoma in more than 80% of cases.

27

Week 220

 

define "dyskariosis"

Abnormal cytologic changes of squamous epithelial cells characterized by hyperchromatic nuclei and/or irregular nuclear chromatin

28

Week 220

 

What is Cervarix, and why is it used?

This is a vaccination programme for young women/girls, given to prevent HPV infection and subsequent increased risk of Cervical Ca. 

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30

Week 220

 

What is Acute mastitis, and what causes it?

This is inflammation of the mamary gland, and it is often caused by Staph. 

31

Week 220

 

what is Periductal mastitis?

This is inflammation AROUND the mamary duct. over 90% of cases are in smokers. 

32

Week 220

 

What is granulomatous mastitis?

This is often caused by things like TB - rarer than other breast infection though. Can be confused with breast Ca.

33

Week 220

 

What is Mammary duct ectasia?

This occurs when the lactiferous duct becomes blocked or clogged. Can be confused with breast Ca. 

34

Week 220

 

What is the most common site for a painless breast lump?

Upper outer quadrant. 

35

Week 220

 

Name two Dopamine antagonist anti-emetics. State where they work.

Metoclopramide and Domperidone. They act on the Chemoreceptor trigger zone

 

SE: Dystonic reactions, amenorrhea. Contra-indicated in cardiac or renal impairment. 

 

AVOID IN PARKINSONS!!!

36

Week 220

 

Name an H1 Receptor antagonist Anti-emetic, MOA, SE's. and use. 

Cyclizine

Highly effective post - op. 

AVOID in males with prostatic involvement. 

Acts on vestibular nuclei. 

SE's: Sedation, xerostomia, urinary retention, dizziness, blurred vision. 

37

Week 220

 

Name two antimuscurinic Anti -emetic drugs, their MOA, SE's, and Contr-indications. 

Hyoscine and Hydrobromide

Acts on Vestibular nuclei

Best for motion sickness

SE's minimal. 

38

Week 220

 

Name a 5HT3 antagonist anti-emetic, MOA, SE's, contr-indications and best use. 

Ondansetron. 

Acts on chemoreceptor trigger zone

VERY useful in N & V from chemo drugs

SE's: Headache, diarrhoea, constipation. Rarely prolonged QT. 

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Week 220

 

Name a substance P (NK1) antagonist anti-emetic, uses, MOA, SE's. 

Aprepitant

Acts on NK1 receptors

For emotogenic chemo

Se's mild: Headache, dozziness, hiccups, reflux. 

40

Week 220

 

Name the five main classes of anti-emetic drugs with an exmple for each. 

Dopamine receptor antagonists: metoclopramide

H1 Receptor Antagonists: cyclizine

5H3 Receptr antagonists: Ondansetron

Antimuscurinic: Hydrobromide

Substance p antagonist: Aprepitant

41

Week 220

 

Which is the best anti-emetic for a 19YO F pre-surgery for R arthroscopy of knee?

Cyclizine

42

Week 220

 

What is the best anti-emetic for tracvel sickness - IE ferry crossing?

Hyoscine or hydrobromide (Antimuscurinics)

43

Week 220

 

Which is the safest anti-emetic for use in pregnant women?

Drugs best avoided- but Promethazine shown to be safest. 

44

Week 220

 

Commonest cancer in female in the UK?

Breast

45

Week 220

 

Commonest gynae cancer in the uk?

Ovarian

46

Week 220

 

Commonest gynae cancer in the world?

Cervical

47

Week 220

 

what is the most likely cause of raised androgens in post menopausal women?

Ovarian or adrenal malignancy. 

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