What is the most common Vulval Cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
What type of cells are confined to where, in vulval intraepithelial Neoplasia?
Neoplastic, confined to the epithelium.
What are the cell types of the two most common cervical cancers?
Squamous Cell carcinoma (75%)
Remainder are Adenocarcinoma (25%)
Of what type are most malignant uterine tumours?
The vast majority are Adenocarcinomas.
What is the second most common gynae malignancy, behind cervical?
What is the most common type of ovarian tumour?
Surface epithelial (70%)
What is the most common gynae epithelial tumour?
The malignant type is highly aggressive.
What is removed in a subtotal Hysterectomy?
The body of the uterus is the only thing removed.
What is removed in a total Hysterectomy?
Both the body of the uterus, and the cervix of the uterus is removed.
what is removed in a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooopheractomy?
The body of uterus, cervix of uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries arer all removed.
What is a "carcinoma"?
A cancer of (any) epithelial cells
What is an "Adenocarcinoma"?
A cancer originating from glandular epithelial tissue.
What is "Dysplasia"?
Disordered growth, with cells showing abnormalities e.g. mitotic forms, pleomorphism (several forms of the same thing)
What is Neoplasia?
Abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth.
In basic terms, what is endometrial cancer?
A malignant epithelial tumour.
What is meant by the term "corpus cancer"?
Any cancer in the body of the uterus.
Endometrial Ca is most common in which group: Pre-menopausal women, or post-menopausal women?
A raise in/high levels of which hormone is a strong risk factor for endometrial Ca?
Which Ca is the most common cause of gynae related death in the UK?
Ovarian cancer. 90% are epithelial ovarian orrigin.
The BRCA1 gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?
Breast and ovarian Ca.
The BRCA2 gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?
Breast, pancreatic and ovarian.
The HNPCC gene increases the risk of developing which cancers?
Colorectal, endometrial and ovarian.
Which anti-cancer therapy uised in the treatment of breast cancer increases the risk of ovarian cancer?
What is the most common route of metastatic disease spread in ovarian carcinoma?
Intraperitoneal dissemination - via ascites.
Which sexually transmitted viral infection is thought to be a causative factor of 70% of cervical Ca cases?
HPV (16 & 18)
What is the most common type of cervical Ca?
Squamous Carcinoma in more than 80% of cases.
Abnormal cytologic changes of squamous epithelial cells characterized by hyperchromatic nuclei and/or irregular nuclear chromatin
What is Cervarix, and why is it used?
This is a vaccination programme for young women/girls, given to prevent HPV infection and subsequent increased risk of Cervical Ca.
What is Acute mastitis, and what causes it?
This is inflammation of the mamary gland, and it is often caused by Staph.
what is Periductal mastitis?
This is inflammation AROUND the mamary duct. over 90% of cases are in smokers.
What is granulomatous mastitis?
This is often caused by things like TB - rarer than other breast infection though. Can be confused with breast Ca.
What is Mammary duct ectasia?
This occurs when the lactiferous duct becomes blocked or clogged. Can be confused with breast Ca.
What is the most common site for a painless breast lump?
Upper outer quadrant.
Name two Dopamine antagonist anti-emetics. State where they work.
Metoclopramide and Domperidone. They act on the Chemoreceptor trigger zone.
SE: Dystonic reactions, amenorrhea. Contra-indicated in cardiac or renal impairment.
AVOID IN PARKINSONS!!!
Name an H1 Receptor antagonist Anti-emetic, MOA, SE's. and use.
Highly effective post - op.
AVOID in males with prostatic involvement.
Acts on vestibular nuclei.
SE's: Sedation, xerostomia, urinary retention, dizziness, blurred vision.
Name two antimuscurinic Anti -emetic drugs, their MOA, SE's, and Contr-indications.
Hyoscine and Hydrobromide
Acts on Vestibular nuclei
Best for motion sickness
Name a 5HT3 antagonist anti-emetic, MOA, SE's, contr-indications and best use.
Acts on chemoreceptor trigger zone
VERY useful in N & V from chemo drugs
SE's: Headache, diarrhoea, constipation. Rarely prolonged QT.
Name a substance P (NK1) antagonist anti-emetic, uses, MOA, SE's.
Acts on NK1 receptors
For emotogenic chemo
Se's mild: Headache, dozziness, hiccups, reflux.
Name the five main classes of anti-emetic drugs with an exmple for each.
Dopamine receptor antagonists: metoclopramide
H1 Receptor Antagonists: cyclizine
5H3 Receptr antagonists: Ondansetron
Substance p antagonist: Aprepitant
Which is the best anti-emetic for a 19YO F pre-surgery for R arthroscopy of knee?
What is the best anti-emetic for tracvel sickness - IE ferry crossing?
Hyoscine or hydrobromide (Antimuscurinics)
Which is the safest anti-emetic for use in pregnant women?
Drugs best avoided- but Promethazine shown to be safest.
Commonest cancer in female in the UK?
Commonest gynae cancer in the uk?
Commonest gynae cancer in the world?
what is the most likely cause of raised androgens in post menopausal women?
Ovarian or adrenal malignancy.