Week 229 - Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Medicine Year 2 (Bear) > Week 229 - Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 229 - Nutrition Deck (37):
1

Week 229

 

What is the most abundant amino acid in the body?

Glutamine

2

Week 229

 

What is "Refeeding syndrome"?

Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved or severely malnourished.

 

Symptoms:

  • Switch of energy source from endongenous ketones to exogenous glucose
  • rapid uptake of PO4/K+/Mg2+ into cells
  • Na+ and water retention
  • Hypophosphataemia
  • Tissue hypoxia
  • Confusion
  • Thombocytopaenia
  • Cardiac arrythmias
     

3

Week 229

 

What are the indications for PEG?

  • Stroke
  • Patients with chronic neuro problems
  • Head and neck malignancy
  • pysch patients (?)

4

Week 229

When a PEG comes out - what do you do!?

 

PUT A FOLEY CATHETER IN THERE! 20Fr, 30cc balloon.

5

Week 229

 

What are the essential emino acids?

  • These - Tryptophan
  • ten - threonine
  • valuable - valine
  • amino acids - arginine
  • have - histadine
  • long - lysine
  • preserved - phenylalanine
  • life - leucine
  • in - isoleucine
  • man - methionine
  •  

6

Week 229

 

What are the symptoms of hypo and hyper 'natraemia?

  • HYPO: N and V, headache, malaise, hypotension
  • HYPER: Muscle weakness, confusion, hypertension

7

Week 229

 

What are the symptoms of Hyper and Hypo 'kalaemia?

  • Hypo: Muscle weakness, hypotonia, depression, paralytic ileus, confusion, arrhythmias
  • Hyper: Ecg changes, malaise, palpatations, muscle weakness

8

Week 229

 

What are the symptoms of hyper and hypo calcaemia?

  • Hypo: Irritability, tremor, confusion, convulsions, ECG changes.
  • HYPER: Weakness, respiratory paralysis, defects in cardiac conduction

9

Week 229

 

What are the symptoms of hypo and hyper magnesaemia?

  • HYPO: Parasthaesia, tetany
  • HYPER: Fatigue, confusion, abdo pain, n and v , high urine output

10

Week 229

 

What are the symptoms of hyper and hypo phosphataemia?

  • HYPO: Muscle weakness and wasting, skeletal wasting
  • HYPER: Chronic renal impairment, hypoparathyroidism

11

Week 229

 

Which factors place a patient at high risk of refeeding sydrome?

  • BMI less than 16kg/M2
  • Weight loss is more than 15% in 3-6 months
  • Little or no intake for more than ten days
  • Low baseline phosphate, potassium and magnesium

 

12

Week 229

 

What is short bowel syndrome?


SBS is the state of malabsorption and malnutrition that occurs following massive anatomical or functional loss of the small intestine, normally by surgical resection.

 

Causes:

 


necrotizing enterocolitis
midgut volvulus
omphalocele and gastroschisis
jejunoileal atresia
internal hernia
congenital short bowel
meconium ileus (a condition associated with cystic fibrosis)
superior mesenteric artery deformities
intestinal atresias
aganglionosis
(Hirschsprung's disease)
 

13

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

This is normal ileum.

14

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Mucosal inflammation causes redness, friability (ease of bleeding) and oedema (swelling), giving rise to a granular appearance.
 

15

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

As inflammation extends deeper into the bowel wall, oedema results in a cobblestone appearance.
 

16

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

As inflammation progresses, ulcers appear, and may be punctate (left), linear, or more extensive.

17

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Repeated ulceration causes destruction of mucosa, giving the swollen surviving mucosa a raised, polypoid appearance (pseudopolyps).
 

18

Week 229

 

Hypergastrinaemia is present in patients with which syndrome?

Short bowel syndrome

19

Week 229

 

The ileum is the site of absoprtion of what?

Vitamin B12 and bile acids

20

Week 229

 

What is absorbed in the jejenum?

  • Glucose
  • Amino acids
  • Fat
  • Thiamine
  • Vitamin c

21

Week 229

 

Where are copper, iodide, and fluoride absorbed?

The stomach

22

Week 229

 

Where is vitamin K absorbed?

Large intestine

23

Week 229

 

What does
Glucagon - like peptide -2 (GLP-2) do?
 

Increases glucose absorption (Villous hyperplasia)

24

Week 229

 

Abdominal aorta comes through diaphragm at which level?

T12

25

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

26

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

This is chiladiti's syndrome

27

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

HIatus hernia

28

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

This is a hiatus hernia

29

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Hiatus hernia

30

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

HIckman line

31

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Hickman line

32

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Inguinal hernia

33

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Look for IVC filter

34

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

PICC line

35

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Picc line

36

Week 229

 

What is this?

Q image thumb

Spigelian hernia

37