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Flashcards in week 3 (test 1) Deck (31):
1

paradigm

reflective of current theory and the entire worldview in which it exists

2

paradigm shift

change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science

3

anomalies

deviates from paradigm

4

scientific revolution

significant anomalies accrue and the discipline is thrown into a state of crisis

5

aristotle ideas about sleep

- sleep is a time of physical renewal
- the seat of consciousness is in the heart
- sleep is a result of warm vapors from stomach

6

galen ideas about sleep

- first to experimentally observe brain
- consciousness resided in brain, not heart

7

ideas before 20th century

- brain is only active during wakefulness
- sleep is a passive state
- sleep results from a lack of sensory stimulation

8

rene descartes ideas about sleep

- soul resides in pineal gland
- resting of animal spirits in pineal led to collapse of ventricles then sleep

9

luigi galvani ideas

- discovers electrical activity in nervous system
- aided in understanding transmission of signals
- led to measuring brain activity during sleep

10

richard caton ideas

- used a galvanometer to detect electrical waves on the surface of the scalp
- 50 years before eeg

11

wilhelm griesinger ideas

- documents eye movements at sleep onset
- eyes flutter during dreaming state
- proposed sleep as an active state

12

hans berger ideas

- developed eeg
- observed differences in sleep and waking brain activity

13

loomis, harvey, hobart ideas

- identify 5 stages

14

eugene aserinsky ideas

- w/ nathaniel kleitman and william dement documented eye movements using eeg
- coined REM sleep

15

krueger and obal ideas

- individual groups of neurons enter a state of sleep after a certain threshold of s;ee[ has been reached

16

5000-1000 bc insomnia treatments

- chanting, bloodletting, medicinal plants

17

1903 insomnia treatments

- first sleeping pill
- barbital on the market and popular with insomnia and anxiety

18

1970s insomnia treatment

- richard bootzin
- cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia

19

forced desynchrony

- extreme day length
- exhibit endogenous free running rhythms
- allows for measurement of circadian period

20

adolescent phase delay

- observed bedtime delay
- consistent across continents
- initially attributed to increased homework, extracurricular activities
- delay in animals suggest biological basis

21

characteristics of light influencing phase

- timing
- intensity
- duration
- wavelength
- photic history

22

circadian phase markers

- melatonin
- core body temperature
- cortisol

23

dim light melatonin onset (dlmo)

- dim light conditions
- controlled posture
- melatonin measured in plasma or saliva
- defined as the clock time at which endogenous melatonin surpasses a predetermined threshold

24

response of the circadian clock that is dependent upon internal biological time

phase response curve

25

process s

homeostasis

26

process c

circadian rhythm

27

superchiasmatic nucleus

- master circadian clock
- sever or lesion this small group and you lose circadian rhythmicity
- each cell in scn is a separate clock

28

neurotransmitters in wakefulness

- monoamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin)
- acetylcholine
- histamine
- orexin

29

neurotransmitters of sleep

- adenosine
- GABA
- melatonin
- galanin

30

characteristics of rem sleep

- rem
- dreams
- muscle twitching
- fluctuating heart rate
- fluctuating blood pressure
- fluctuating respiration
- fluctuating body temp
- noradrenaline

31

characteristics nrem sleep

- stable heart rate
- stable blood pressure
- stable respiration
- stable body temp
- serotonin