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Flashcards in week 4 (test 1) Deck (27):
1

behavioral criteria of sleep

1. rapidly reversible state with reduced responsiveness
2. increased arousal thresholds
3. species-specific posture and place preference
4. behavioral rituals (yawning)
5. circadian regulation
6. homeostasis

2

hibernation

deepest form of dormacy in mammals lasting for weeks or months

3

topor

extended daily periods of inactivity and reduced metabolism

4

functions of sleep

- recovery at cellular, network, and endocrine system levels
- energy conservation
- ecological adaptations
- learning and synaptic plasticity

5

energy conservation and ecology hypothesis

- animal performance and prey availability peak at specific times of the day
- sleep is an energy saving state
- NREM sleep is a hypo-metabolic state

6

energy conservation and ecology pros/cons

+
- grounded in natural selection
- modeling approaches
-
- are energy savings enough
- only valid for NREM
- doesn't explain selection of REM sleep

7

learning and brain plasticity hypothesis

- wake is associated with learning, leading to long term potentiation
- process becomes unsustainable energetically and due to space limitations with prolonged wakefulness
- sleep = widespread synaptic depression and synaptic downscaling
- only the most robust connections are left, reducing energy and space for renewed learning

8

learning and brain plasticity pros

- cognitive effects are obvious even after mild sleep deprivation
- supported by imaging studies

9

learning and brain plasticity cons

- memory and learning can occur in the absence of sleep

10

cellular restoration hypothesis

- key components are used up during prolonged wakefulness
- sleep may restore macromolecules
- oxidative stress ensues during wakefulness
- sleep is needed to restore the synthesis of macromolecules and oxidative stress

11

cellular restoration pros

- changes in gene expression across sleep and wake and after sleep deprivation are consistent across brain regions
- applicable to all species

12

cellular restoration cons

- changes reported are correlative
- mostly concerns only NREM sleep

13

7 sleep ages

1. pregnancy
2. neonatal
3. children
4. adolescence and young adulthood
5. middle age and menopause
6. elderly
7. disturbance in dementia

14

sleep during menstrual cycle

- lowest around menses
- increase in spindle activity
- decrease in REM during luteal phase

15

hormonal influences of sleep

- progesterone high during ovulation, low before period
- pyrogenic -> rem sleep to occur earlier in sleep cycle -> loss of deep sleep -> feelings of depression, anxiety, irritability

16

pregnancy and sleep

- ~25% report disturbed sleep in 1st trimester
- ~75% report disturbed sleep in 3rd trimester
- 79% of women said sleep was more disturbed during pregnancy than any other time

17

pregnancy-related sleep disturbances

- disturbed sleep quality
- poor sleep continuity
- short/long sleep duration
- restless leg
- disordered breathing

18

1st trimester sleep

- difficulty sleeping through night
- nausea
- daytime sleepiness
- increased urination

19

2nd trimester sleep

- improved sleep and energy
- possible snoring, heartburn, and nightmares

20

3rd trimester sleep

- difficulty sleeping
- increased urination, snoring, back pain, restless legs

21

neonatal sleep

- babies do not have stable 24 hour sleep wake rhythm
- generates ~2-6 months
- sleep cycle every 45 minutes

22

sleep in children

- need as much as possible
- toddlers should spend 40% of time asleep (11-14 hours in 24 hour period)
- preschoolers-11-13 hours
- school aged-9-11 hours

23

menopause sleep

- hot flashes
- night sweats
- leg cramps ~40%
- depressed mood ~20%
- weight gain
- headaches
- insomnia ~20%
- breathing disorders ~15%

24

sleep in elderly

- reduced sleep pressure
- increases in stage 1

25

psychomotor vigilance task (PVT)

- developed by Dinges
- push the button as soon as stimulus appears
- easy to administer
- scores lapses and reaction times

26

neurobehavioral effects of sleep loss

- voluntary and involuntary sleep latencies shorten
- microsleeps
- behavioral lapsing
- false responses
- time on task decrements
- cognitive speed
- learning/recall defecits

27

central disorders of hypersomnolence

- conditions causing severe daytime sleepiness (narcolepsy)