Week 3 - Visual Object Recognition Flashcards Preview

Cognitive Psychology > Week 3 - Visual Object Recognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 3 - Visual Object Recognition Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What is conceptual knowledge?

A

Knowledge that enables people to recognise objects and events and to make inferences about their properties

2
Q

Define “concepts”

A

A mental representation of a class or individual. Also the meaning of objects, events and abstract ideas

3
Q

Give an example of a concept

A

The way a person mentally represents “cat” or “house”

4
Q

What is the definitional approach to categorisation?

A

The ice that we can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether the object meets the definition of the category

5
Q

What is family resemblance?

A

The idea that things in a particularly category resemble each other in a number of ways

6
Q

What is the prototype approach to categorisation?

A

The idea that we decide something is a member of category by determining whether is is similar to a standard representation of the category, called a prototype

7
Q

What is sentence verification technique

A

A technique in which the participants is asked to indicate whether a particular sentence is true or false

8
Q

What is an example of sentence verification technique?

A

Sentences like “an apple is a fruit”

9
Q

What is the typicality effect?

A

The ability to judge the truth or falsity of sentences involving high prototypical members of a category more rapidly than sentences involving low prototypical members of a category

10
Q

What is priming?

A

When presentation of one stimulus facilitates the response to another stimulus that usually follows closely in time

11
Q

What is the exemplar approach to categorisation?

A

The approach to categorisation on which members of a category are judged against exemplars - members of the category that the person had encountered in the past

12
Q

What are exemplars?

A

Members of a category that a person has experienced in the past

13
Q

What is hierarchical organisation?

A

Organisation of categorises in which larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific categories

14
Q

What is the superordinate level

A

The most general category level distinguished by Rosch - for example, furniture. Same as the global level

15
Q

What is the global level?

A

The highest level in Roschs categorisation scheme - for example further or vehicles. Same as the superordinate level

16
Q

What is the basic level

A

The level below the global level (eg furniture)

17
Q

What is the subordinate level?

A

The most specific category defined by Rosch (eg kitchen table)

18
Q

What is the order of Roschs approach to level categories?

A
  1. Global
  2. Basic
  3. Specific
19
Q

What is the semantic network approach?

A

And approach to understanding how concepts organised in the mind that proposes that concepts are arranged in networks

20
Q

What is the hierarchical model?

A

As applied to knowledge representation, a model, it consists of levels, a range, so the more specific concepts, such as a canary or salmon, are at the bottom, and more general concepts, such as a bird, fish, or animal, are at higher levels

21
Q

What is the cognitive economy?

A

A feature of some semantic network models, in which properties of a category that are shared by many members of a category are stored at a higher level node in the network. For example, the property “can fly” can be stored at the node for “bird” rather than the node for “canary”

22
Q

What does spreading activation refer to?

A

Activity that spreads out along any link in a semantic network that is connected to an activated node

23
Q

What is a lexical decision task?

A

A procedure in which a person has asked to decide as quickly as possible. Whether a particular stimulus is a word or a non-word

24
Q

Define connectionism

A

A network model of mental operation that proposes that concepts are represented in networks that are modelled after neural networks. This approach to describing the mental representation of concept is also called the parallel distributed processing (PDP) approach.

25
Q

What is another way we refer to connectionism? Hint PDP

A

Parallel distributed processing approach

26
Q

What is a connectionist network?

A

The type of network proposed by the connectionist approach to the representation of concepts. Connection is networks are based on neural networks, but I’m not necessarily identical to them. One of the key properties of a connection is network is that a specific category is represented by activity that is distributed over many units in the network.

27
Q

What is an error signal?

A

During learning in a connection is network, the difference between the app signal generated by a particular stimulus and the output that actually represent the stimulus

28
Q

What is back propagation?

A

A process by which learning can occur in a connection is network, in which an air signals transmitted backwards through the network

29
Q

What is graceful degradation?

A

Disruption of performance due to damage of a system that occurs only gradually as part of the system undamaged. This occurs in some cases of brain damage and also when the connection is networks are damaged.

30
Q

What is category specific memory impairment?

A

A result of brain damage in which the patient has trouble recognising objects in a specific category

31
Q

What is the multiple factor approach?

A

Seeking to describe how concepts are represented in the brain by searching for multiple factors that determine how concepts of divided up with an a category

32
Q

What is the semantic category approach?

A

An approach to describing how semantic information is represented in the brain, the proposes that there are specific neural circuits for some specific categories

33
Q

What is the embodied approach?

A

The proposal that our knowledge of concept is based on reactivation of sensory and motor processes that occur when we interact with an object

34
Q

What does semantic somatotopy refer to?

A

Correspondence between words related to specific parts of the body and the location of brain activity associated with that part of the body

35
Q

What is semantic dementia?

A

Air condition in which there is a general lots of knowledge for all concepts

36
Q

What condition can damage to the interior temporal lobe cause?

A

Damage to the ATO has been connected with semantic deficits in dementia patients with the savant syndrome

37
Q

What is the hub and spoke model?

A

A model of semantic knowledge that proposes the areas of the brain are associated with different functions are connected to the interior temporal lobe, which integrates information from these areas.

38
Q

What’s is transcranial magnetic stimulation?

A

A procedure in which magnetic pulses are applied to the school, in order to temporarily disrupt the function part of the brain