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Flashcards in week 4 Deck (35):
1

the 5 tonsils are:

palantine (2) - lie in the wall of the oropharynx
lingual tonsils (2) - lie at the base of the tongue
pharyngeal tonsil - lie in the posterior part of the nasopharynx
also have the disputed tubal tonsil located just posterior to the opening of the Eustachian tube (otitis media with effusion)

2

tonsils are:

aggregations of lymphatic nodules which are egg-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue which are partially encapsulated. They have no afferent vessels, but do have efferent vessels.

3

otitis media with effusion

non-specific inflammation of the middle ear mucosa associated with non-drainage ofthe resultant mucous down the eustachian tube

4

conductive hearing loss

where sound cannot reach the cochlea, caused by dysfunction in the middle or outer ear, most often caused by ear wax.
4 main mechanisms:
obstruction, mass loading (effusion), stiffness (otosclerosis), discontinuity
Rinne negative.

5

sensorineural hearing loss

occurs when the inner ear or the cochlear nerve are damaged, generally due to damage to the hair cells of the inner ear.
Caused by: long-term exposure to loud noises, ototoxic medications, trauma, metabolic causes, ageing
Rinne positive

6

attention

global cognitive process encompassing multiple sensory modalities, operating across sensory domains. Component processes include:
arousal, vigilance, divided attention, selective attention

7

delerium

impaired arousal - drowsiness
impaired vigilance - impersistance
impaired divided and selective attention - distractible

8

immediate (working) memory

immediate recall of small amounts of verbal or spatial information. Appears to function independently of long-term memory, involves a central regulator.

9

explicit memory

memories that are available for conscious reflection
2 branches - episodic and semantic
Episodic - personally experienced and are stored in relation to the context in which they were experienced
semantic - stored independently of context, time and personal relevance. Concerned with factual information and vocabulary

10

Implicit memory

no conscious access to these memory stores. They function independent of explicit memory meaning that profound amnaesia can be seen but implicit memory function can be completely normal.
Dependent on networks involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum

11

Parkinson's disease

progressive degenerative disorder of basal ganglia function that results in variable combinations of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia

12

functions of serotonin (5HT)

hallucinatory effects
Sleep, wakefullness and mood - lesions of the raphe nuclei or depletion of 5HT abolishes sleep in animals
Feeding and appetite - 5Ht agonists induce hyperphagia in patients
Sensory transmission - normal ability to disregard irrelevant forms of stimulus depends on intact 5HT pathways

13

functional roles of dopamine

motor control (nigrostriatal pathway)
behavioural effects - mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways (reward)
endocrine control - controls the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary (inhibitory effect)

14

the monoaminergic systems include:

dopaminergic pathways, noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin

15

functions of the noradrenergic systems in the brain

arousal and mood - activity of the LC increases with behavioural arousal. Neurons respond more strongly to

16

levels of control of motor movement

cerebral (highest level)
Subcortical - basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum
local control - spinal cord and brainstem

17

Dopamine synthesis

Synthesised from Tyrosine.
Key enzymes - tyrosine hydroxylase (rate-limiting step) and L-amino acid decarboxylase (DOPA decarboxylase)

18

locus coeruleus

most prominent cluster of noradrenergic neurons in the pons

19

pre-cursor of serotonin (5-HT)

tryptophan

20

Location of serotonin neurons and distribution of serotonin

raphe nuclei
Does not cross the BBB so is concentrated in the CNS

21

Cranial nerves exiting at the jugular foramen

Ix, X, XI

22

innervation of the parotid gland

glossopharyngeal nerve

23

what type of hearing loss would be seen in viral labyrinthitis

sensorineural hearing loss

24

cranial nerves involved inthe corneal reflex

trigeminal (afferent) and facial (efferent)

25

nerves involved in the gag reflex

glossopharyngeal (afferent), vagus (efferent)

26

type of epithelium located in the lateral ventricles

simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli

27

maximum score on GCS

15

28

minimum score on GCS

3

29

three categories on the GCS

Eye opening (4)
Best Motor response (6)
Verbal Response (5)

30

locations of the brain associated with episodic memory

Extended limbic system - entorhinal cortex and hippocampus (medial temporal lobe), diencephalon
Dorso-lateral pre-frontal cortex - regulates the extended limbic system. Temporal organisation of episodic memory. Interacts with the extended limbic system

31

Type 1 dopamine receptors and their role

D1 (most numerous in the body), D5
Can be excitatory - opening of sodium channels
Can be inhibitory via opening of potassium channels

32

Type 2 dopamine receptors and their role

D2, 3, 4
usually inhibit their target neuron

33

vertebral level where trachea begins and ends

C6-T4

34

Alar ligament

connects the sides of the dens to tubercles on the medial side of the occipital condyles

35

how would you distinguish the internal and external carotids anatomically?

internal does not give off any branches in the neck