Flashcards in week 5 Deck (47):
The four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue are:
What is their role
What nerve innervates them
muscles of the tongue
Role: speech, eating and swallowing
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Geniglossus - originates at the mental symphsis and inserts onto the dorsum of the tongue and the hyoid bone. Functions to depress and protrude the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Styloglossus - originates at the styloid process of the temporal bone and inserts onto the side of the tongue. Functions to elevate and retract the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Hyoglossus - originates at the hyoid bone and inserts onto the side of the tongue. Functions to depress and retract the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Palatoglossus - originates at the palatine aponeurosis and inserts broadly across the posterior of the tongue. Functions to elevate the posterior portion of the tongue. Innervated by the vagus nerve.
which extrinsic tongue muscle elevates and retracts the tongue
which extrinsic tongue muscle depresses and rpotrudes the tongue
which extrinsic tongue muscle depresses and retracts the tongue
squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
squamous cell carcinoma derived from the lining epithelium. Established, invasive carcinomas present as raised, nodular lesions that develop central ulceration with a hard, raised edge. Initial lesions are red and generally arise in the floor of the mouth or the soft palate with larger tumours spreading to the lateral aspects of the tongue.
disorder of structure and/or function
the expression and experience of ill health. Psychological, social and cultural factors are crucial. Includes how they display it.
Locus of control
the degree to which the person believes that control to influence events resides with themselves or others. Do they believe that the world has to change, not them, or is it all down to them. Not always black and white.
Internal locus of control
believe that the have agency in their behaviour and ability to influence the world about them
o Found to adjust better to illness
o Downsides – can feel very responsible, guilty, self-blame.
o Health-behaviours – will probably have good management as they believe it is their job and that they need to do it, go to appointments etc.
External locus of control
believe that they have little control over events and that outcomes will be determines by others or by fate
o Health behaviours – don’t think it’s their job so might not have as good control as someone with an internal locus of control e.g. diabetes
area of the midbrain that is responsible for the control of pupillary light reflexes
area of the midbrain responsible for providing information regarding eye movement
the ability to adjust the strength of the lens, accomplished through the action of the ciliary muscle acting on the suspensory ligaments of the lens
neurotransmitter that is present in high concentrations at the synaptic cleft in darkness
age-related macular degeneration
acquired degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium and subsequently the neurosensory retina and choroid which results in loss of central vision
therapies for ARMD
These are anti-VEGF drugs
bitemporal hemianopia is caused by?
lesions to the optic chiasm. These can be due to tumours e.g. pituitary adenoma or meningioma, or aneurysms
spinal level of the hyoid bone
spinal level of the thyroid cartilage
Spinal level of the cricoid cartilage
level at which the trachea bifurcates
recesses in which fish bones are likely to get caught
piriform fossa and vallecula
structures that would be damaged by irradiation used to treat oral cancer
salivary glands - dry mouth. Pharynx. Trismus - reduced opening of the jaws due to spasm of the muscles of mastication
location that the parotid gland opens into the mouth
opposite the crown of the second upper molar. Its duct pierces buccinator
location where the submandibular salivary gland opens into the oral cavity
lateral to the lingual frenulum, via the sublingual papilla
where does the sub-lingual gland open into the oral cavity proper?
does so via lots of little openings in the base of the oral cavity
what type of epithelium is the tongue made up of?
stratified squamous epithelium. The filiform papillae, which cover the top of the tongue are keratinised
which extrinsic tongue muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve?
which tongue muscle is innervated by the vagus nerve
which lymph node drains the palantine tonsil
drainage of the posterior third of the tongue
deep cervical lymph nodes
two recesses in the pharynx in which fish bones are likely to become trapped
valeculla and piriform fossa
muscle supporting the structures in the floor of the mouth and separating it from the mandibular region?
radiation treatment of tongue cancer would damage which structure and lead to what effects
salivary glands and pharynx would be damaged.
Lead to dysphagia and trysmus (spasm of the muscles of mastication)
lesions of the optic chiasm result in which type of visual field defect?
Causes: tumours e.g. pituitary adenoma and aneurysms
lesions of the optic tract result in which type of visual field defect?
causes: tumours, trauma, aneurysms of posterior cerebral artery
other lesions that can cause homonymous hemianopia
lesions of the lateral geniculate nucleus, the optic radiation or the visual cortex
eye function carried out by the superior colliculus
eye function carried out by the pretectal area
pupillary light reflex
what is the swinging flashlight test used for identifying?
Asymmetry of afferent input in the pupillary light reflex - Relative afferent pupil defect
papilloedema is a clinical sign of increased ICP. Causes?
tumours, malignant hypertension, head injury, haemorrhage
Papilloedema - visible distortion of the optic disk
three layers of the meninges are known as what where it comes to the optic nerve
outer sheath, intermediate sheath and the inner sheath
what use would the light reflex be clinically?
screening test for brain injury and would suggest injury to the upper brain-stem
neurons in the superior colliculus project to where
project to either:
part of the thalamus for moving the eyes
tectospinal tract for activating scalene muscles in the neck which rotate the head
what type of epithelium lines the sinuses of the head, including the nasal cavity ?
pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells