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Flashcards in week 5 Deck (47):
1

The four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue are:
What is their role
What nerve innervates them

superior longitudinal
inferior longitudinal
transverse
vertical
muscles of the tongue
Role: speech, eating and swallowing
Hypoglossal nerve

2

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue

Geniglossus - originates at the mental symphsis and inserts onto the dorsum of the tongue and the hyoid bone. Functions to depress and protrude the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Styloglossus - originates at the styloid process of the temporal bone and inserts onto the side of the tongue. Functions to elevate and retract the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Hyoglossus - originates at the hyoid bone and inserts onto the side of the tongue. Functions to depress and retract the tongue. Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve
Palatoglossus - originates at the palatine aponeurosis and inserts broadly across the posterior of the tongue. Functions to elevate the posterior portion of the tongue. Innervated by the vagus nerve.

3

which extrinsic tongue muscle elevates and retracts the tongue

styloglossus

4

which extrinsic tongue muscle depresses and rpotrudes the tongue

genioglossus

5

which extrinsic tongue muscle depresses and retracts the tongue

hyoglossus

6

squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

squamous cell carcinoma derived from the lining epithelium. Established, invasive carcinomas present as raised, nodular lesions that develop central ulceration with a hard, raised edge. Initial lesions are red and generally arise in the floor of the mouth or the soft palate with larger tumours spreading to the lateral aspects of the tongue.

7

Disease

disorder of structure and/or function

8

Illness

the expression and experience of ill health. Psychological, social and cultural factors are crucial. Includes how they display it.

9

Locus of control

the degree to which the person believes that control to influence events resides with themselves or others. Do they believe that the world has to change, not them, or is it all down to them. Not always black and white.

10

Internal locus of control

believe that the have agency in their behaviour and ability to influence the world about them
o Found to adjust better to illness
o Downsides – can feel very responsible, guilty, self-blame.
o Health-behaviours – will probably have good management as they believe it is their job and that they need to do it, go to appointments etc.

11

External locus of control

believe that they have little control over events and that outcomes will be determines by others or by fate
o Health behaviours – don’t think it’s their job so might not have as good control as someone with an internal locus of control e.g. diabetes

12

area of the midbrain that is responsible for the control of pupillary light reflexes

pre-tectal area

13

area of the midbrain responsible for providing information regarding eye movement

superior colliculi

14

accomodation

the ability to adjust the strength of the lens, accomplished through the action of the ciliary muscle acting on the suspensory ligaments of the lens

15

neurotransmitter that is present in high concentrations at the synaptic cleft in darkness

glutamate

16

age-related macular degeneration

acquired degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium and subsequently the neurosensory retina and choroid which results in loss of central vision

17

therapies for ARMD

Ranibizumab, bevacizumab
These are anti-VEGF drugs

18

bitemporal hemianopia is caused by?

lesions to the optic chiasm. These can be due to tumours e.g. pituitary adenoma or meningioma, or aneurysms

19

spinal level of the hyoid bone

C3

20

spinal level of the thyroid cartilage

C4

21

Spinal level of the cricoid cartilage

C6

22

level at which the trachea bifurcates

T4

23

recesses in which fish bones are likely to get caught

piriform fossa and vallecula

24

structures that would be damaged by irradiation used to treat oral cancer

salivary glands - dry mouth. Pharynx. Trismus - reduced opening of the jaws due to spasm of the muscles of mastication

25

location that the parotid gland opens into the mouth

opposite the crown of the second upper molar. Its duct pierces buccinator

26

location where the submandibular salivary gland opens into the oral cavity

lateral to the lingual frenulum, via the sublingual papilla

27

where does the sub-lingual gland open into the oral cavity proper?

does so via lots of little openings in the base of the oral cavity

28

what type of epithelium is the tongue made up of?

stratified squamous epithelium. The filiform papillae, which cover the top of the tongue are keratinised

29

which extrinsic tongue muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve?

Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus

30

which tongue muscle is innervated by the vagus nerve

palatoglossus

31

which lymph node drains the palantine tonsil

jugulo-digastric

32

drainage of the posterior third of the tongue

deep cervical lymph nodes

33

two recesses in the pharynx in which fish bones are likely to become trapped

valeculla and piriform fossa

34

muscle supporting the structures in the floor of the mouth and separating it from the mandibular region?

mylohyoid

35

radiation treatment of tongue cancer would damage which structure and lead to what effects

salivary glands and pharynx would be damaged.
Lead to dysphagia and trysmus (spasm of the muscles of mastication)

36

lesions of the optic chiasm result in which type of visual field defect?

bitemporal hemianopia
Causes: tumours e.g. pituitary adenoma and aneurysms

37

lesions of the optic tract result in which type of visual field defect?

homonymous hemiamopia
causes: tumours, trauma, aneurysms of posterior cerebral artery

38

other lesions that can cause homonymous hemianopia

lesions of the lateral geniculate nucleus, the optic radiation or the visual cortex

39

eye function carried out by the superior colliculus

eye movements

40

eye function carried out by the pretectal area

pupillary light reflex

41

what is the swinging flashlight test used for identifying?

Asymmetry of afferent input in the pupillary light reflex - Relative afferent pupil defect

42

papilloedema is a clinical sign of increased ICP. Causes?

tumours, malignant hypertension, head injury, haemorrhage
Papilloedema - visible distortion of the optic disk

43

three layers of the meninges are known as what where it comes to the optic nerve

outer sheath, intermediate sheath and the inner sheath

44

what use would the light reflex be clinically?

screening test for brain injury and would suggest injury to the upper brain-stem

45

neurons in the superior colliculus project to where

project to either:
part of the thalamus for moving the eyes
tectospinal tract for activating scalene muscles in the neck which rotate the head

46

what type of epithelium lines the sinuses of the head, including the nasal cavity ?

pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

47

cranial nerves passing through the venous cavernous sinus

occulomotor (III), Trochlear (IV) and Abducens (VI)