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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (254)
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1

The thorax is the ____ part of the trunk and is located between the ___ and the ___

The thorax is the *upper* part of the trunk and is located between the *neck and the abdomen*

2

What is included in the thoracic cage?

– 12 thoracic vertebrae posteriorly
– 12 pairs of ribs and their costal cartilages
– Sternum

3

The inferior angle of the ____ aligns with the 7th rib posteriorly

The inferior angle of the *scapula* aligns with the 7th rib posteriorly

4

The top 7 ribs are called the ___ ribs or the ___ ribs

The top 7 ribs are called the *true* ribs or the *vertebral-sternal ribs*

5

Why are the top 7 ribs called the vertebral-sternal ribs?

Because they attach from the vertebra individually to the sternum via costal cartilage

6

Ribs 8-12 are called ____ ribs

Ribs 8-12 are called *false* ribs

7

Ribs 8-10 are called ____ ribs, because they attach ___

Ribs 8-10 are called *Vertebral costal ribs, because they attach from the vertebra to the costal cartilage of the 7th rib*

8

The last 2 ribs are called ___ and they ____ articulate with the sternum

The last 2 ribs are called *vertebral/floating ribs* and they *do not* articulate with the sternum

9

What is the unique feature of the thoracic vertebrae?

– Facets on their bodies for articulation of the heads of the ribs
– Facets on their transverse processes for articulation with the rib tubercle

10

The facets/demi-facets of the thoracic vertebrae allow for ____ joints between the head of the ribs , the demi-facets of the body and synovial joints for the _____ of the tubercles of the ribs

The facets/demi-facets of the thoracic vertebrae allow for *synovial* joints between the head of the ribs , the demi-facets of the body and synovial joints for the *transverse processes* of the tubercles of the ribs

11

The joint between the superior and inferior demi facet is called the ___

The joint between the superior and inferior demi facet is called the *costovertebral joint*

12

The ____ ligament connects the head of the rib to the demi-facets of the superior and inferior vertebra and the head to the IVD

The *Radiate ligament of head of rib* connects the head of the rib to the demi-facets of the superior and inferior vertebra and the head to the IVD

13

The intra-articular ligament is between the ____ and the ___

The intra-articular ligament is between the head of the rib and the IVD

14

How may joints are at each vertebral levels?

6

- 2 facet joints
- 2 costo-transverse joint
- 2 costo-vertebral joints

15

Where are the facet joints?

Between the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebra

16

The ____ joints are on each side of the vertebra for the rib

The *costo-transeverse* joints are on each side of the vertebra for the rib

17

The costovertebral joints are the junctions between the ___ and the ___

The costovertebral joints are the junctions between the *head of the ribs and the vertebral bodies*

18

The ratio of the disc to body height in the thoracic spine is...?

The ratio of the disc to body height in the thoracic spine is 1 cm thick : 5cm thick

19

The ratio of the disc to body height in the cervical spine is...?

The ratio of the disc to body height in the cervical spine is 2cm thick :5cm thick

20

The ratio of the disc to body height in the lumbar spine is...?

The ratio of the disc to body height in the lumbar spine is 1cm thick :3cm thick

21

The ___ is stronger in the thoracic spine and it helps it resist rotational stress

The *annulus* is stronger in the thoracic spine and it helps it resist rotational stress

22

The facet joint in the thoracic spine are arranged to allow ___ and ___

The facet joint in the thoracic spine are arranged to allow *flexion(up sloping) and extension(down sloping)*

23

The thoracic spine has more ligaments that provide ___ and ____ than in other areas of the spine

The thoracic spine has more ligaments that provide *support and mechano-reception* than in other areas of the spine

24

The costo-transverse ligament goes from the ___ to the ___

The costo-transverse ligament goes from the *neck of the rib to the transverse process*

25

The lateral costo-transverse ligament goes from the ___ to the ____

The lateral costo-transverse ligament goes from the *rib to the transverse process*

26

The ligament running from the rib to the transverse process above is called the ____

The ligament running from the rib to the transverse process above is called the *superior costo-transverse ligament*

27

The intertransverse ligament run from ___ to ____

The intertransverse ligament run from *transverse process to transverse process*

28

The interarticular ligament is between the ___ and ___

The interarticular ligament is between the *head of the rib and the IVD*

29

The costo-transverse joints are more ___ than ___ superiorly

The costotransverse joints are more *convex than concave superiorly*

30

The convexity of the costo-transverse joints allow for the upper ribs to __ and __(rotation) rather than ___ and ___(elevation/depression) like they do in the lower half

The convexity of the costo-transverse joints allow for the upper ribs to *roll and spin (rotation) rather than slide and glide(elevation/depression) * like they do in the lower half

31

The lower costotransverse joints are more ___ allowing for the ___ movement of the lower ribs

The lower costotransverse joints are more *planar* allowing for the *bucket handle movement* movement of the lower ribs

32

What are the parts of a typical rib?

• Head with two articular facets
• Neck
• Tubercle
• Body or shaft
• Angle
• Costal groove

33

The structures that live between the angles of the ribs are innervated by the ___

The structures that live between the angles of the ribs are innervated by the *posterior primary rami of the spinal nerves*

34

Anything lateral to the angles of the ribs is supplied by the ___

Anything lateral to the angles of the ribs is supplied by the *ventral primary rami*

35

The inter-costal nerves, arteries, and veins travels along the ___

The inter-costal nerves, arteries, and veins travels along the *costal groove*

36

The costvertebral joint is the articulation of the ____ with the ___ part of the body of the corresponding thoracic vertebra, the ___ part of the body of the vertebra above and the intervertebral disc

The costvertebral joint is the articulation of the *head of the rib with the superior* part of the body of the corresponding thoracic vertebra, the *inferior* part of the body of the
vertebra above and the intervertebral disc

37

The costovertebral joint is a ___joint, because they allow gliding, but the shape of the upper costovertebral joint allow a little bit of sliding movements to occur

The costovertebral joint is a synovial plane joint, because they allow gliding, but the shape of the upper costovertebral joint allow a little bit of sliding movements to occur

38

____ ligament supports the costovertebral joint

*Radiate* ligament supports the costovertebral joint

39

What is the radiate ligament?

A thickening of the anterior capsule surrounding the head of the rib and the two bodies of the vertebrae

40

The costotransverse joint is the articulation of the ___ of the rib with the associated
____

The costotransverse joint is the articulation of the *tubercle of the rib with the associated
transverse process*

41

The costotransverse joint is a ___ plane joint

The costotransverse joint is a *synovial* plane joint

42

The costotransverse joint is supported both superiorly and laterally by the ___ and ____ ligaments

The costotransverse joint is supported both superiorly and laterally by the *superior and
lateral costotransverse ligaments*

43

The costochondral joint is the articulation of the ___ with the ___

The costochondral joint is the articulation of the *sternal end of the ribs with the costal cartilage*

44

The costochondral joint is a ___ joint

The costochondral joint is a *primary cartilaginous* joint

45

The sternocostal joints is the articulation of the ____ with the ___ and ___

The sternocostal joints is the articulation of the *costal cartilages with the manubrium and sternum*

46

The costochondral joints can be sites of sprains or irritation and can set up an inflammatory process called ___

The costochondral joints can be sites of sprains or irritation and can set up an inflammatory process called *costrochondritis*

47

The 1st rib is a ____ joint

The 1st rib is a *primary cartilaginous* joint

48

The 2nd to 7th ribs are a ___ joints

The 2nd to 7th ribs are a synovial plane joints

49

The sternocostal joints are supported by ___ and ____ ligaments.

The sternocostal joints are supported by *anterior and posterior radiate sternocostal ligaments. *

50

What are the 3 parts of the sternum?

- Manubrium
- Body
- Xiphoid

51

Inspiration requires that the volume of the thoracic cage be ___

Inspiration requires that the volume of the thoracic cage be *increased*

52

How does inspiration volume increase vertically?

Contraction of the diaphragm causing a lowering of the diaphragm

53

How does inspiration volume increase transversely?

Bucket handle movement of the ribs, primarily by ribs 8-10

54

How does inspiration volume increase anteriorly/posteriorly?

Pump handle movement of the ribs, primarily by ribs 1-7

55

What are the characteristics of the external intercostal muscles?

- 11 pairs
- They run obliquely from the rib above to the rib below
- They run in anterior inferior direction
- As they reach the costal cartilages they become the external intercostal
membrane

56

The ____ is the lining and protector of the intercostal nerve, vein and artery

The *innermost intercostal* is the lining and protector of the intercostal nerve, vein and artery

57

What are the characteristics of the internal intercostals?

– 11 pairs of muscles
– They lie deep to the external intercostals
– They run obliquely at right angles to the external intercostals
– Posteriorly they form the internal intercostal membrane

58

What are the characteristics of the innermost intercostals?

– 11 pairs that run similar to the internal intercostals
– They are separated from the internal intercostals by the intercostal nerves and
vessels
– They cover the middle ¾ of the intercostal space

59

The ___ membrane is between the innermost intercostal and the transversus thoracis

The *common membrane of transversus thoracis* membrane is between the innermost intercostal and the transversus thoracis

60

Subcostal muscles are ____

Subcostal muscles are *thin muscular slips that extend from the angle of a rib on the internal surface to internal surface of rib below.*

61

What are the characteristics of the subcostal muscles?

– They cross two intercostal spaces
– They run in the same direction as the internal intercostals (posteriorly and inferiorly)

62

The transverse thoracis are ___

The transverse thoracis are *four or five muscular slips that arise from the xiphoid and body of the sternum*

63

Transverse thoracis span ___ and ___ to the ___

Transverse thoracis span *superiorly and laterally to the 2nd to 6th costal cartilages *

64

____ are 12 fan shaped muscles

*Levatores costarum* are 12 fan shaped muscles

65

Levatores costarum arise from the ___ to ___

Levatores costarum * arise from the transverse processes of C7 to T11*

66

Levatores costarum run ____ and ___ to insert on the ___

Levatores costarum run *inferiorly and laterally to insert on ribs below*

67

Coming off the ___ artery and vein is the internal thoracic artery and vein, which gives off the ___ intercostal arteries and veins which will anastamose with the posterior intercostal arteries and veins that come directly off the ____

Coming off the *subclavian artery and vein* is the internal thoracic artery and vein, which gives off the *anterior* intercostal arteries and veins which will anastamose with the posterior intercostal arteries and veins that come directly off the *thoracic aorta*

68

What are the posterior muscles of the thorax?

- Serratus posterior superior
- Serratus posterior inferior
- Levatores costarum

69

The intercostal nerves are ____

The intercostal nerves are *the ventral primary rami of the first eleven thoracic spinal nerves*

70

The 12th thoracic spinal nerve is called the ____

The 12th thoracic spinal nerve is called the *subcostal nerve*

71

Why doesn't T1 become a thoracic spinal nerve?

Because it forms the inferior chord/ lower trunk of the brachial plexuses

72

Which intercostal muscle has an aponeurosis?

The innermost intercostal muscle

73

Each intercostal space is supplied by ___

1. a large posterior intercostal artery arising from the aorta and,
2. a small anterior intercostal artery arising from the internal thoracic artery

74

The ___ restricts motion of the thoracic spine making it the second least mobile of the spinal regions

The *rib cage* restricts motion of the thoracic spine making it the second least mobile of the spinal regions

75

What are the extrinsic muscles of the thorax?

• Diaphragm
• Pectoral muscles – pectoralis major and minor
• Scalenes
• Sternocleidomastoid

76

What are the intrinsic muscles of the thorax?

• External Intercostals
• Internal Intercostals
• Innermost Intercostals
• Subcostal muscles
• Transversus Thoracis
• Levatores Costarum

77

What is the superior boundary of the mediastinum?

- Thoracic inlet

78

What is the inferior boundary of the mediastinum?

- Thoracic outlet

79

What is the posterior boundary of the mediastinum?

- Vertebral column

80

What is the anterior boundary of the mediastinum?

- Sternum

81

What is the medial boundary of the mediastinum?

- Mediastinal pleura

82

What are the subdivisions of the mediastinum?

• Superior mediastinum
• Inferior mediastinum

83

The inferior mediastinum can be broken into the ____

– Anterior mediastinum
– Posterior mediastinum
– Middle mediastinum

84

The superior mediastinum is the region superior to the ____ separating ___ and __

The superior mediastinum is the region * superior to the intervertebral disc separating T4 and T5*

85

What are the contents of the superior mediastinum?

1. Thymus
2. Great veins
3. Arch of the aorta and its three branches
4. Parts of the trachea and esophagus
5. Vagus and phrenic nerves
6. Thoracic ducts

86

The anterior mediastinum is the region anterior to the ____ and posterior to the ___

The anterior mediastinum is the region *anterior to the pericardial sac and posterior to the sternum*

87

The posterior mediastinum is the region posterior to the ___ and anterior to the ____

The posterior mediastinum is the region posterior to the *pericardial sac and anterior to the thoracic vertebrae*

88

What are the contents of the posterior mediastinum?

1. Esophagus
2. Lower end of the trachea
3. Descending aorta and its branches
4. Azygos venous system
5. Thoracic duct
6. Thoracic part of sympathetic trunk

89

The middle mediastinum is the region that contains the ___

The middle mediastinum is the region that contains the *pericardial sac, heart, great arteries, main bronchi and phrenic nerve*

90

The pericardium is a ____

The pericardium is a *double layered fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and roots of the great vessels*

91

What are the two layers of the pericardium?

- Fibrous pericardium
- Serous pericardium

92

The fibrous pericardium is the ____

The fibrous pericardium is the *dense fibrous outer layer of connective tissue*

93

The fibrous pericardium is fused centrally to the ___ and attached to the ___ by ___

The fibrous pericardium is fused centrally to the *diaphragm and attached to the sternum by sternopericardial ligaments*

94

The fibrous pericardium functions to ___ and ___

The fibrous pericardium functions to *compress the heart within the thoracic cavity and limits it distention*

95

The fibrous pericardium is pierced inferiorly by the ___ and posteriorly by the ____. Superiorly it blends with the ____

The fibrous pericardium is pierced inferiorly by the * vena cava and posteriorly by the pulmonary veins. Superiorly it blends with the connective tissue of the great vessels*

96

What are the two layers of the serous pericardium?

- Parietal layer
- Visceral layer

97

The parietal layer of the serous pericardium lines the ___

The parietal layer of the serous pericardium lines the *fibrous pericardium*

98

The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is the ___

The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is the *covering the outside of the heart*

99

The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is known as the ____

The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is known as the *epicardium*

100

Between the two layers of the serous pericardium, there is a ___ which contains a small layer of fluid for lubrication of the moving surfaces

Between the two layers of the serous pericardium, there is a pericardial cavity which contains a small layer of fluid for lubrication of the moving surfaces

101

During embryonic development the pericardium forms folds resulting in ___

During embryonic development the pericardium forms folds resulting in *sinuses*

102

What are the two pericardial sinus?

- Transverse pericardial sinus
- Oblique pericardial sinus

103

The transverse pericardial sinus is located anterior to the ___ and posterior to the ___

The transverse pericardial sinus is located anterior to the * superior vena cava and posterior to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk*

104

The oblique pericardial sinus is bounded on the right by the ____ and the left by the ___

The oblique pericardial sinus is bounded on the right by the *inferior vena cava and pulmonary veins and on the left by the pulmonary veins*

105

What is the mediastinum?

The small space between the two pleural cavities

106

Where does the mediastinum split into its two divisions?

At the level of the second rib straight through to T4

107

The ____ plane splits the superior and inferior mediastinums

The *transverse thoracic* plane splits the superior and inferior mediastinums

108

At which vertebral level are we no longer in the mediastium?

T9

109

___ is the connection between the aorta and the esophagus and it has 2 layers of mediastinal pleura (R & L)

*The mesophagus* is the connection between the aorta and the esophagus and it has 2 layers of mediastinal pleura (R & L)

110

As the heart fills with blood, it can build up a lot of blood pressure against the ____ to the give heart a bit of an assist to pump blood out

As the heart fills with blood, it can build up a lot of blood pressure against the *fibrous pericardium* to the give heart a bit of an assist to pump blood out

111

A bleed from the heart into the fibrous pericardium, then blood can get into the layer between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium to cause a condition called ____

A bleed from the heart into the fibrous pericardium, then blood can get into the layer between the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium to cause a condition called *cardiac tamponade*

112

Myocardium is the ____

Myocardium is the *heart muscle*

113

Endocardium is the ___

Endocardium is the *lining of the inside of the heart*

114

The autonomic nervous system is part of the nervous system that is concerned with ___

The autonomic nervous system is part of the nervous system that is concerned with *innervation of the viscera, glands, blood vessels, heart and smooth muscle.*

115

What are the 2 parts of the ANS?

• Sympathetic system
• Parasympathetic system

116

What are the 2 parts of the neuronal system of the ANS?

A preganglionic neuron with nerve cell bodies located in the CNS and a postganglionic neuron with nerve cell bodies located in, the peripheral ganglion

117

The preganglionic neuron synapses with the postganglionic neuron in the ___

The preganglionic neuron synapses with the postganglionic neuron in the *peripheral ganglia*

118

Why is the sympathetic nervous system also known as the thoracolumbar regions?

The SNS connects with thoracic and lumbar regions from T1 to L2

119

The SNS is responsible for ___

The SNS is responsible for *mobilizing the body in stressful or emergency situations (Fight or Flight response)*

120

Preganglionic cell bodies of SNS are located in ____

Preganglionic cell bodies of SNS are located in *the lateral column of gray matter between T1 and L2*

121

Peripheral fibers of the cell bodies of SNS exit the spinal cord through the ____

Peripheral fibers of the cell bodies of SNS exit the spinal cord through the *ventral roots and ventral primary rami.*

122

SNS cell bodies leave the spinal nerve and enter the sympathetic trunk via the ___

SNS cell bodies leave the spinal nerve and enter the sympathetic trunk via the *white ramus communicans.*

123

Once in the sympathetic trunk the preganglionic fibers of the SNS can do one of 4 things, and they are ___

1. Synapse at that level and exit through the gray ramus communicans to rejoin the spinal nerve
2. Ascend or descend the sympathetic trunk and synapse at another level exiting through the gray ramus communicans
3. Pass through the sympathetic trunk without synapsing and exit as a splanchnic nerve to the viscera
4. Pass directly to the adrenal medulla

124

Why is the PNS known as the craniosacral region?

Because the PNS connects with cranial nerves 3,7,9, and 10 and sacral spinal nerves 2, 3, and 4.

125

The PNS is responsible for ___

The PNS is responsible for *activating systems that conserve and restore body resources (Rest and Digest)*

126

Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons synapse with the postganglionic neurons very near to or in the ____

Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons synapse with the postganglionic neurons very near to or in the *wall of the organ they innervate*

127

What are the 4 parasympathetic ganglia in the cranial region?

1. Ciliary ganglion
2. Pterygopalatine ganglion
3. Otic ganglion
4. Submandibular ganglion

128

Where are the preganglionic cells from and where do the postganglionic cells go to in the ciliary ganglion?

– Preganglionic from CN III
– Postganglionic to ciliary body and sphincter pupillae

129

Where are the preganglionic cells from and where do the postganglionic cells go to in the pterygopalatine ganglion?

– Preganglionic from CN VII
– Postganglionic to lacrimal gland and nasal mucosa

130

Where are the preganglionic cells from and where do the postganglionic cells go to in the otic ganglion?

– Preganglionic from CN IX
– Postganglionic to parotid gland

131

Where are the preganglionic cells from and where do the postganglionic cells go to in the submandibular ganglion?

– Preganglionic from CN VII
– Postganglionic to submandibular and sublingual glands

132

In the PNS, the vagus nerve supplies the ____

In the PNS, the vagus nerve supplies the *preganglionic fibers to the viscera of the
neck, thorax and abdomen*

133

The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of sacral spinal nerves 2, 3 and 4 extend to the ____ where they synapse with postganglionic neurons

The preganglionic parasympathetic fibers of sacral spinal nerves 2, 3 and 4 extend to the *walls of the pelvic organs* where they synapse with postganglionic neurons

134

The lungs and their coverings (the pleura) fill the ____of the thorax cavity

The lungs and their coverings (the pleura) fill the *lateral portions* of the thorax cavity

135

Inserted between the right and left lungs and their pleura is the ____

Inserted between the right and left lungs and their pleura is the *mediastinum*

136

What is pleura?

The coverings of the lungs

137

What are the 2 types of pleura?

- Visceral
- Parietal

138

___ pleura lines the lungs

Visceral pleura lines the lungs

139

Parietal pleura lines the ____

Parietal pleura lines the *walls of the thoracic cavity*

140

The 2 types of pleura come together and become continuous at the ____ which surrounds ___ of each lung

The 2 types of pleura come together and become continuous at the *root of the lung/hilum of lung* which surrounds *the main bronchus* of each lung

141

What are the parts of the parietal pleura?

- Costal pleura
- Diaphragmatic pleura
- Mediastinal pleura

142

The costal pleura lines the ____

The costal pleura lines the *thoracic walls*

143

The diaphragmatic pleura is the lining of the ____

The diaphragmatic pleura is the lining of the *diaphragm*

144

The mediastinal pleura is the lining of the ____

The mediastinal pleura is the lining of the *mediastinum*

145

The space outside the lungs, in between the two layers of the pleura is the ___

The space outside the lungs, in between the two layers of the pleura is the *pleural cavity*

146

The Costodiaphragmatic
recess is the area where ___

The Costodiaphragmatic
recess is the area where *you can agin access to the pleural space without damaging the lung*

147

Pleural cavities are two ___ and ___ potential spaces

Pleural cavities are two *separate and closed* potential spaces

148

Fluid filled the pleural space to ____ between parietal and visceral layers of pleura as you breathe in and out

Fluid filled the pleural space to *reduce friction* between parietal and visceral layers of pleura as you breathe in and out

149

What happens when the pleural space becomes inflammed/ gains inflammatory cells?

The pleuras rub against each other

150

How many lobes are in the right lung and what separates them?

– Three lobes - superior,
middle and inferior
– The lobes are separated by
horizontal and oblique
fissures

151

How many lobes are in the left lung and what separates them?

– Two lobes – superior and
inferior
– The lobes are separated by
an oblique fissure

152

The top of the lung is called the ___

The top of the lung is called the *apex*

153

The cardiac notch is on which lung?

The left lung

154

Each lung receives a primary or principal bronchus from the
____

Each lung receives a primary or principal bronchus from the
*trachea*

155

Each principal bronchus divides into ____ which supplies a lobe of the lung

Each principal bronchus divides into lobar bronchi which supplies a lobe of the lung

156

Each lobar bronchus divides into _____, which supplies a specific bronchopulmonary segment.

Each lobar bronchus divides into *tertiary segmental bronchi,* which supplies a specific bronchopulmonary segment.

157

The branches of the _____ supply venous blood to the lungs for aeration.

The branches of the *pulmonary arteries* supply venous blood to the
lungs for aeration.

158

Pulmonary arteries run with the ____ and lie posterior to them. There is a branch to each lobe and ____ segment

Pulmonary arteries run with the *bronchi* and lie posterior to them. There is a branch to each lobe and *bronchopulmonary* segment

159

There are no arterial anastomoses between ____
segments. Therefore, removal of a pulmonary segment of the lung will not endanger the viability of the adjacent segments

There are no arterial anastomoses between *bronchopulmonary*
segments. Therefore, removal of a pulmonary segment of the lung will not endanger the viability of the adjacent segments

160

The ____ drain oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart

The *pulmonary veins* drain oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart

161

___ and _____ are formed at the hilus of the each lung.

*Superior and inferior pulmonary veins* are formed at the hilus of the each lung.

162

The superior pulmonary veins receives tributaries from the _____ of the left lung

The superior pulmonary veins receives tributaries from the *superior and middle lobes of the right lung and superior and lingula lobes* of the left lung

163

The inferior pulmonary veins receives tributaries from the ___ of the right and left lungs

The inferior pulmonary veins receives tributaries from the *lower lobes* of the right and left lungs

164

____ is the attachment point of the lung

*Root (Hilum) of the Lung* is the attachment point of the lung

165

The root (Hilum) of the lung connects the ___ to the __ and ___ and is surrounded by the reflection of parietal to visceral pleura.

The root (Hilum) of the lung connects the *lung to the heart and trachea* and is surrounded by the reflection of parietal to visceral pleura.

166

The root (Hilum) of the lung provides a highway for the ___

The root (Hilum) of the lung provides a highway for the *main bronchus, pulmonary vessels, bronchial vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. *

167

Superficial lymphatic drains to the ____ and runs along the
visceral pleura to the ___

Superficial lymphatic drains to the *surface* and runs along the visceral pleura to the *hilum*

168

Deep lymphatic drainage follows the ___ and collects at the ___

Deep lymphatic drainage follows the *bronchi* and collects at the *hilum*

169

At the hilum, all the lymphatic drainage is filtered by the
_____

At the hilum, all the lymphatic drainage is filtered by the
*tracheobronchial nodes*

170

What is the carina?

The cartilaginous material at the junction of the right and left bronchus, where the trachea spilts

171

What side of the lung has an intermediate bronchus?

The right lung. The intermediate bronchus is between the right superior bronchus and the middle bronchus

172

What are the 3 bronchopulmonary segments that come off the right superior main bronchus/superior lobe?

- Apical
- Posterior
- Anterior

173

What are the 2 bronchopulmonary segments that come off the right middle main bronchus/middle lobe?

- Lateral
- Medial

174

What are the bronchopulmonary segments that come off the right inferior main bronchus/inferior lobe?

- Superior
- Anterior basal
- Medial basal
- Lateral basal
- Posterior basal

175

What are the bronchopulmonary segments that are on the left side and make up the apico-posterior part?

- Apical
- Posterior
- Anterior

176

What forms the bronchopulmonary segments of the left superior lobe?

- Apico-posterio
- Superior lingular
- Inferior lingular

177

What forms the bronchopulmonary segments of the left inferior lobe?

- Superior
- Anterior basal
- Medial basal
- Lateral basal
- Posterior basal

178

The superior lingular and inferior lingular bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung and similar to the ____ and ___ of the right lung

The superior lingular and inferior lingular bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung and similar to the *lateral and medial* bronchopulmonary segments of the right lung

179

The esophagus runs ___ to the descending aorta

The esophagus runs *anterior* to the descending aorta

180

___ sends arterial blood into the lungs

*Pulmonary trunk* sends arterial blood into the lungs

181

____ sends deoxygenated blood from the ___ ventricle into the lungs for oxygenation

*Right pulmonary artery* sends deoxygenated blood from the *right* ventricle into the lungs for oxygenation

182

____ and ___ bring oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs

*Right and left pulmonary veins* bring oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs

183

The right and left pulmonary veins go into the ____

The right and left pulmonary veins go into the *Atria*

184

What kind of nerves are in the lungs?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that can activate smooth muscles to squeeze and tighten up the airways or dilate and open up the airways

185

The superior pulmonary veins drains the ___ and _____ lobes of the right lung and the ___ lobe of the left lung

The superior pulmonary veins drains the *superior and middle* lobes of the right lung and the *superior lobe(including the lingula)* of the left lung

186

The inferior pulmonary veins drains the ___ lobe of the right lung and the ___ lobe of the left lung

The inferior pulmonary veins drains the *inferior* lobe of the right lung and the *inferior* lobe of the left lung

187

The parasternal nodes drain into the ___

The parasternal nodes drain into the *left and right bronchomediastinal trunks*

188

What is the superior relation of the parietal pleura to the thoracic wall?

Pleura extends through the thoracic inlet, it is called the cupula of the pleura

189

What is the inferior relation of the parietal pleura to the thoracic wall?

- the pleura is related three ways
– anterior - 7th costal cartilage
– mid-axillary - 10th costal cartilage
– posterior - 12th vertebral level

190

What is the Costo-diaphragmatic recess?

The separation of parietal pleura from visceral pleura where the costal and diaphragmatic pleura meet

191

What is the superior relation of the lungs to the thoracic wall?

Lung extends through the thoracic inlet as the apex of
the lung and fills up most of the cupula

192

What is the anterior relation of the lungs to the thoracic wall?

The lung extends down to the 6th costal cartilage

193

What is the mid-axillary relation of the lungs to the thoracic wall?

The lung extends down to the 8th costal cartilage

194

What is the posterior relation of the lungs to the thoracic wall?

The lung extends down to the 10th or 11th rib

195

What is the heart?

Four chambered fibromuscular organ that lies obliquely in the
middle of the mediastinum

196

The ____ is the most posterior part of the heart.

The *base* is the most posterior part of the heart.

197

What forms the base of the heart?

It is formed by the left atrium and a small portion of the right

198

The apex of the heart projects ___

The apex of the heart projects *inferolaterally from the base of the heart*

199

Where is the apex of the heart located?

It is located in the 5th intercostal space just medial to the mid clavicular line in a supine individual

200

The diaphragmatic surface is the ____ surface of the heart

The diaphragmatic surface is the *inferior* surface of the heart

201

The diaphragmatic surface is formed by ____

The diaphragmatic surface is formed by *both ventricles but primarily the left*

202

The sternocostal surface is the ____ surface of the heart

The sternocostal surface is the *anterior* surface of the heart

203

The sternocostal surface is formed by ____

The sternocostal surface is formed *largely by the right ventricle*

204

The pulmonary surface is the ___ of the heart

The pulmonary surface is the *left side* of the heart

205

The pulmonary surface is formed largely by the ___

The pulmonary surface is formed largely by the * left ventricle*

206

The right border of the heart is formed by the ___

The right border of the heart is formed by the *right atrium and is in line with the superior and inferior vena cava*

207

The inferior border of the heart is formed by the ___

The inferior border of the heart is formed by the *right ventricle and a small part of the left ventricle*

208

The left border of the heart is formed by the ___

The left border of the heart is formed by the *left ventricle and slightly by the left atrium*

209

The superior border of the heart is formed by ___

The superior border of the heart is formed by *both atria*

210

The right atrium receives blood from the ___ and ___ and the ____

The right atrium receives blood from the *inferior and superior venae cava and the
coronary sinus.*

211

The ____ is the main drainage of the heart.

The coronary sinus is the main drainage of the heart.

212

The right atrium is characterized by the ___ and ____

The right atrium is characterized by the *pectinate muscles and fossa ovalis*

213

The right ventricle receives blood from the ___ and pumps into the ____

The right ventricle receives blood from the *right atrium and pumps into the pulmonary
arteries*

214

The right ventricle is characterized by the ___ and ____

The right ventricle is characterized by the *trabeculae camae and papillary muscles*

215

Papillary muscles are connected to the tricuspid valve by the ____

Papillary muscles are connected to the tricuspid valve by the *chordae tendinae*

216

The walls of the right ventricle form a smooth surface called the ____, in the upper medial part as it leads into the ____

The walls of the right ventricle form a smooth surface called the *infundibulum*, in the upper medial part as it leads into the *pulmonary trunk*

217

The pulmonary trunk is equipped with pulmonary valves to prevent a ____

The pulmonary trunk is equipped with pulmonary valves to prevent a *reflux of blood*

218

The left atrium receives blood ___

The left atrium receives blood *via four pulmonary veins from the lungs*

219

The blood in the left atrium is passed to the left ventricle through the ____

The blood in the left atrium is passed to the left ventricle through the *mitral orifice*

220

The mitral orifice is guarded by the ___ or ____

The mitral orifice is guarded by the *mitral or bicuspid valve*

221

The walls of the ___ are three times as thick than the _____

The walls of the *left ventricle* are three times as thick than the *right ventricle*

222

Blood is propelled from the left ventricle into the ____ through the ____

Blood is propelled from the left ventricle into the *aorta through the aortic valves*

223

The right coronary artery arises from the ___ and passes inferiorly in the ___

The right coronary artery arises from the *aorta* and passes inferiorly in the *coronary sulcus*

224

The right coronary artery gives off the ____ at the inferior border of the heart

The right coronary artery gives off the *right marginal artery* at the inferior border of the heart

225

At the inferior border, the right coronary artery turns left and posterior and gives rise to the ______

At the inferior border, the right coronary artery turns left and posterior and gives rise to the
*posterior interventricular artery*

226

The posterior interventricular artery runs inferiorly to the ____ in the _____

The posterior interventricular artery runs inferiorly to the *apex of the heart in the posterior interventricular sulcus*

227

The left coronary artery arises from the ___ and very quickly divides into ___ and the ___

The left coronary artery arises from the *aorta* and very quickly divides into *anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery*

228

The anterior interventricular artery descends to the ___ of the heart where it anastomoses with the ____

The anterior interventricular artery descends to the *apex* of the heart where it anastomoses with the *posterior interventricular artery*

229

Circumflex artery passes around the __ border of the heart in the coronary sulcus and anastomoses with the ____ of the right coronary artery

Circumflex artery passes around the *left* border of the heart in the coronary sulcus and anastomoses with the *termination* of the right
coronary artery

230

____ arises from the circumflex artery

*Left marginal artery* arises from the circumflex artery

231

The great cardiac vein ascends in the ___

The great cardiac vein ascends in the *anterior interventricular sulcus*

232

The middle cardiac vein ascends in the _

The middle cardiac vein ascends in the *posterior interventricular sulcus*

233

The small cardiac vein runs in the ___ on the ___ side

The small cardiac vein runs in the *coronary sulcus on the right side*

234

The veins all drain into the ___ which empties into the ____

The veins all drain into the *coronary sinus which empties into the right atrium*

235

___ to ____ is the tricuspid valve

*Right atrium to right ventricle* is the tricuspid valve

236

___ to ____ is the mitral valve

*Left atrium to left ventricle* is the mitral valve

237

The pulmonary valve runs from the ___ to the ____

The pulmonary valve runs from the *right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries*

238

The aortic valve runs from the ___ to the ____

The aortic valve runs from the *left ventricle to the ascending aorta*

239

The aortic arch gives off the ____

The aortic arch gives off the *descending aorta*

240

The arch of the azygos vein drains into the ___

The arch of the azygos vein drains into the *SVC*

241

The pulmonary veins go into the ____ that'll pump blood into the ____ which will pump blood out through the ____

The pulmonary veins go into the *left atrium* that'll pump blood into the *left ventricle* which will pump blood out through the *ascending aorta*

242

The SVC is formed by ____

The SVC is formed by *the left brachiocephalic vein, the left subclavian vein, and the internal jugular vein*

243

The fossa ovalis is responsible for ____

The fossa ovalis is responsible for *making sure the blood swirls the right way and fills into the right ventricle*

244

The crista terminalis are the ___

The crista terminalis are the *connections of the pectinate muscles to the inner lining of the atrium*

245

The sinus venarum is the ___

The sinus venarum is the *main way that blood gets into the right ventricle*

246

The infundibulum is also known as the ___

The infundibulum is also known as the *conus arteriosus*

247

What are the cusps that make up the tricuspid valves?

- Anterior cusp
- Septal cusp
- Posterior cusp

248

The tricuspid valve is the ____ valve

The tricuspid valve is the *atrioventricular* valve

249

____ attaches the cusps of the pulmonary valve to the papillary muscles

*Tendinous cords* attaches the cusps of the pulmonary valve to the papillary muscles

250

What do the papillary muscles do?

They close down the cusps and join them all together, so that blood does not back flow into the right atrium

251

Electrical activity of the heart is via the ____, it fires off and its AP reaches the ____

Electrical activity of the heart is via the *sinuatrial node* it fires off and its AP reaches the *atrioventricular*

252

An implantable cardioverter/ defibrillator will follow what pathway to the heart via the ____

An implantable cardioverter/ defibrillator will be connected to the heart via the *left subclavian vein, to the L brachiocephalic vein to the SVC, then the R atrium, through the tricuspid valve, to inject into the atrioventricular wall*

253

A pacemaker will send a connection to the___ and help with the normal firing pattern

A pacemaker will send a connection to the *sinuatrial node* and help with the normal firing pattern

254

What is another name to the anterior interventricular artery?

Left anterior descending artery