Week 4 Lecture 4b - Eating Disorders (112:50) (DN) Flashcards Preview

z. z. PSY3032 Lectures - Abnormal Psychology > Week 4 Lecture 4b - Eating Disorders (112:50) (DN) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4 Lecture 4b - Eating Disorders (112:50) (DN) Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

Describe normal eating?

A pattern of eating behaviours which:  

  • Maintains normal weight
  • Ensures adequate nutrition
  • Conforms with cultural/religious requirements
  • Enjoyable

1:14:50

2

What are some of the consequences of 'abnormal' eating?

  • Constant “dieting”
  • Morbid Obesity
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Binge Eating Disorder
  • Eating disorders are not secondary to other disorders, they are primary disorders

3

How common are eating disorders?

  • one of most common disorders in western world
  • alongside depression & anxiety
  • one of the most common to result in death of a patient

4

What are some of the disorders not otherwise specified in the DSM-5?

  • pika - eating odd things
  • rumination - eating, vomiting & re-eating it

 

1:18ish

5

What is the DSM-5 Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa?

  • Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, leading to significantly low body weight (for age, sex, etc)
  • Intense fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, or persistent behaviour that interferes with weight gain.
  • Disturbance in the way one’s body weight or shape is experienced.

 

slide7

1:18:50

6

What are the two sub-types of Anorexia Nervosa?

  • Restricting Type
    • Not regularly engaged in binge eating or purging behaviours
  • Purging Type
    • Regularly engaged in binge eating and purging behaviours.

slide7

120:30ish

7

What is the Anorexia Nervosa severity scale in DSM-5 based on?

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

121:40

8

What are the 4 criteria on the Distorted Attitude Toward Eating Scales?

  1. Current
  2. Ideal
  3. Attractive (what they think is attractive)
  4. Other Attractive (what others think is attractive)

9

How would a person with anorexia most likely score on Zellner's Distorted Body Image Scale?

High on Distorted Attitude 

10

What is the main difference between a high & a low scorer

in the visual appearance of the 4 scoring criteria on the Distorted Attitude Toward Eating Scale? 

  • High: the criteria are spread out
    • i.e., the difference between current & ideal weight is greater
  • Low: the criteria are more clumped together
    • i.e., the difference between current & ideal weight is much closer

11

Are there any gender similarities/differences on the 'Distorted Attitude Toward Eating Scale'?

  • No real gender difference between ideal distortions
  • Men tend to overestimate their current weight

12

What are some physical outcomes of the chronic starvation associated with in anorexia nervosa?

  • Basal rates slow significantly
    • Blood Pressure  & Heart Rate 
  • Kidney and Gastro-Intestinal problems
  • Bone mass reduced significantly
  • Skin dries out
  • Neurological impairments
  • Reduction of important electrolytes (e.g. Na+, K+) (dangerous)
    • can develop cardiac arythmia
  • Endorphins may be released (may act as reinforcers for disordered behaviours in relation to eating)
  • Tiredness, fatigue, cognitively impaired
  • May lead to death
    • because of extreme physical changes

123:10

13

What are the Psychological changes associated with anorexia

  • Patient is no longer rational
  • Personality changes

 

124:10

14

Who most typically suffers with anorexia nervosa?

What may be some early indicators in this demographic?

  • Typically a disease of young female adolescents (90%).
  • May start off as
    • extreme & rigid dietary control
    • obsession with
      • food
      • weight gain
  • some of these people will remit from these early behaviours & others will develop an eating disorder

 

124:30

15

What is the prognosis for anorexia?

  • Approx. 70% recover to some extent
    • takes about 5 – 7 years.
    • not treatable overnight - recovery takes a long time
    • typically only 20% will show remission within first year
  • 10-20% will never recover, may remit & then fall back into disorder
  • Death rate – from physical complications and suicide is high
    • 1 - 8% death rate (too high)
    • 3rd most common cause of death

 

1:26

16

What is the prevalence of Anorexia In the overall poulation?

  • Rare disease – 1% or less of the population
    • (but 3rd most common disease in young girls)

 

17

What other disorders/conditions are often comorbid with anorexia?

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorders
  • Phobias

125:25

18

Do patients swap between Anorexia & Bulimia?

i.e., cross-over disorders

  • Anorexia can develop into Bulimia
    • but rarely the other way around

 

1:27

19

What is the DSM-5 criteria for Bulimia Nervosa?

  • 1. Recurrent episodes of binge eating
    • In 2 hours food intake > normal
    • Lack of control over eating during the period
  • 2. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviour to prevent weight gain.
    • Vomiting/laxatives/diuretics/excessive exercise
  • 3. Symptoms at least once a week for 3 months
  • 4. Self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.
  • 5. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during periods of Anorexia Nervosa. 

 

slide11

1:27:10

20

What feature distinguishes Bulimia from Anorexia?

  • People suffering from Bulimia are usually of 'normal' weight

 

slide11

 

21

Why would someone with Bulimia maintain 'normal' weight?

  • they are not restricting their calories
    • they take in too many calories & then purge
  • whereas anorexia (severe calorie restriction)

128:00

22

Who is most typically develops Bulimia Nervosa?

  • Typically found in older adolescents/ young women.
    • 90% of cases are female
    • Low incidence : 1-2% of the population

 

slide12

1:29:15

23

How does Bulimia Nervosa usually start?

  • similar to Anorexia
  • rigid control of diet & fear of gaining weight
    • very aware of intake
    • may meet criteria for Anorexia early on
    • but then bingeing/purging behaviour kicks in & end up moving into Bulimia

129:50

24

What are some secondary (comorbid) physical risks associated with Bulimia?

  • Suicide
    • rates are high but lower than with Anorexia Nervosa
  • Electrolyte imbalance/ depletion
    • from frequent purging
  • Severe dental problems
    • from frequent vomiting
    • (ph balance destroyed – excess acidic gastric secretions destroy enamel on teeth).

slide12

130:30

25

How likely is recovery from Bulimia?

  • Prognosis is more optimistic than with Anorexia
    • about 70% recover
    • more successful treatment for Bulimia
  • Recovery Depends on stage of disorder where intervention begins.
  • Comorbity with other disorders.

Death rate: 0-2% (too high) but lower than Anorexia

 

slide12

131:10

26

What is the difference between the DSM-5 severity rating for

Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia Nervosa

Anorexia: BMI

Bulimia: number of times purging during a week

mild: 1-3

extreme: >14

for exam dont think about the numbers - think about the concept

 

128:40

27

What is the DSM-5 criteria for Binge Eating Disorder?

  • 1. Recurrent episodes of binge eating
    • > food intake in 2hours
    • Lack of control
  • 2. The Binge eating episodes are associated with 3 or more of the following:
    • Eating more rapidly than normal
    • Eating until uncomfortably full
    • Eating large amounts when not hungry
    • Eating alone because of embarrassment
    • Feeling disgusted/guilty/upset afterwards
  • 3. Marked distress regarding binge eating episode
  • 4. Binge eating occurs 1/wk for > 3mths
  • 5. NO compensatory behaviour.

slide13

28

What is the main difference between Bulimia & Binge Eating Disorder?

  • No compensatory behaviour in Binge Eating Disorder

133:00

29

Are there any gender differences in the prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder?

If so, how does the gender disparity compare to Anorexia & Bulimia?

  • Women: more prevalent than men
  • Gender disparity is much closer than Anorexia & Bulimia

 

133:20

134:35

30

How does the prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder compare to the other eating disorders?

  • Binge Eating Disorder is more prevalent than Anorexia & Bulimia

133:00