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As the owner of this equity (share) certificate, you

1. are the owner of the company
2. do not expect the company redeem the share.
3. can expect annual dividend and capital gain, but they are not guaranteed


As the owner of this debt (bond) certificate

1. are the creditor (lender) of the company.
2. are promised that the company will redeem the bond at maturity.
3. are promised that the company will pay you periodic coupon (interest).


How are preferred shares different from ordinary shares?

Ordinary shares usually grant the investor the right to vote on important corporate
decisions. Preferred equity does not.

Preferred shareholders have a higher priority claim than common shareholders
because common shareholders cannot receive dividends unless all dividends owed
to preferred shareholders have been paid. Both ordinary and preferred equity have
a lower priority claim than debt, however.
Finally, preferred dividends are usually set at a fixed percentage of par value,
while common dividends vary with the profitability of the company.


What is the relationship between the price of a financial asset and the return
that investors require on that asset, holding other factors constant?

Holding an asset’s cash flows constant, if investors pay a higher price for the
asset, then their return from holding the asset will be lower. In general, asset
prices are inversely correlated with returns.
Price of financial asset is summation of PV from its future CFs.
Mathematically, it can be explained by the below equation

If return, r, increases and CFs are held constant, each faction get smaller and the
summation of these fractions get smaller.


A company is looking to raise funds by issuing commercial paper with a face
value of $1,000,000 maturing in 110 days. How much will the company receive
if market interest rates are 3% pa?

Commercial paper is short-term debt security. If maturity is no longer than 1 year,
simple interest is assumed.

The funds raised from the issue is the price of commercial paper, equivalent to its
price (present value). Use P0 formula in section 2.1.
(1 + 𝑖𝑖 ×
FV = 1,000,000 (the company has to repay face value 1,000,000, FV can also be
taken as the abbreviation of Face Value)
i = 3% = 0.03
N = 110
(1 + 𝑖𝑖 ×𝑁𝑁 365)= 1,000,000
(1 + 0.03 × 110 365)= 1,000,000
1.00904110 = 991,039.91
The company will receive $991,039.91.


explain valuation of financial assets

Different from real assets which are often valued by historical cost or replacement cost, financial assets are priced/valued by discounting all expected future cash flows.
Recall the definition of financial assets: ‘claim on cash flows’
The market price of a financial security/asset/instrument should be the summation of the present values of all future expected cash flows, given an “appropriate” discount (interest) rate.
Debt securities will provide holders with cash flows, including coupon (interest) and principal.
Equity will provide holders with cash flows, such as dividends.
Valuation of financial assets is an application of PV in topic 2 Financial Mathematics


Debt finance - Australian companies can borrow in two ways:

1. Loans from banks and financial institutions
Indirect (Intermediated) finance: cash that are deposited or invested with a financial institutions is lent to a business.
Financial intermediary acts as a principal and the investors and the ultimate borrowers do not know each other

2. Issue debt securities
Direct finance: the company raise funds by issuing debt securities, such as 1) commercial paper, 2) bills of exchange and 3) corporate bonds, in the money or capital market.
Financial institutions, i.e. investment banks, act as agents to facilitate the process


Key characteristics of debt:

Debt holders are not the owners of the firms, so usually have no voting rights

Fixed and prior ranking contractual right to a return on capital (i.e. interest/coupon)
Interest/Coupon is paid in front of dividends.

Fixed and prior ranking contractual right to a return of capital (i.e. face value)
Debt face value is repaid on maturity before dividends (share buyback

If the borrower is required to support its promise to repay the debt with a pledge of real assets (‘collateral’), the debt is classified as secured debt.
Collateral will be liquidated to service the debt in case of the borrower’s bankruptcy.

If the debt is unsecured, the borrower has an obligation to repay the loan but this obligation is not supported by any pledge of assets.

Debt holders can force the company into liquidation and take control of the company’s assets if the company fails to meet its obligations.
‘Default’ or ‘ Credit Event’


explain short term debt securities

Typically mature in less than a year: classified as securities in money market

The issuer (the company) promises to pay a sum of money (face value) on a future date (maturity date).

Face value is typically $100,000 or its multiples.
No other payments will be made to investors (lenders) before maturity.

Sold at a discount, say, investor pays $95,000 for a $100,000 face-value short-term debt security

Profit (or ‘interest’) earned is the difference between the price paid and face value.

In the above case, investors’ profit is $100,000 – $95,000 = $5,000 if holding it to maturity.

This $5,000 gain is classified as capital gain, rather than interest income, for taxation purpose


types of short term debt securities include

Commercial Paper: a.k.a. promissory notes
Issued by ‘Blue Chip’ companies with high credit ratings
The issuer/borrower (corporations) promises to pay a sum of money (face value, say, $500,000) on a stated future date.
Maturity: range from 30 days to 180 days (with some variations)
Unsecured: purely based on issuer’s creditworthiness
Marketability: very liquid in the secondary market

Bank-Accepted Bill (BAB)
A type of bill of exchange, accepted by bank
Similar to commercial papers, but the issuers often have no credit ratings.

Certificates of deposit (CD)
Very similar to commercial paper but issued by banks
Offer highly competitive returns (profits)

Treasury Notes (Australia)
Similar to commercial papers and CD, but issued by Treasury Department
Most liquid short-term debt securities


explain the valuation of short-term debt securities

Short term: no longer than one year, therefore we apply simple interest
The market price of short-term debt security is effectively the present value of its face value paid at maturity with simple interest assumption.

𝑃_0=𝐹𝑉/((1+𝑖×𝑁/365) )

P0 is the market price (present value) of short-term debt security;
FV is the face value (redemption value) at maturity.
i is yield to maturity (aka discount rate) per annum,
N is number of days to maturity.

Example: Suppose a firm draws a $1 million in 90-day Bank Accepted Bill (BAB) and the current market discount rate is 6.5% p.a. Calculate the market price of BAB today.

1,000,000/((1+0.065×90/365) )=1,000,000/1.01602740=$984,225.43


explain long term debt securities - bond

Typically with maturity beyond one year
Issuer has contractual obligation to make promised payments
Face (or par) value is the dollar amount repaid by issuer at maturity.
a.k.a. redemption price/value
Coupon rate is the interest rate promised by the issuer, expressed as a percentage of face value.
Coupon is the periodic payment made to debtholders (investors


explain fixed v floating rates (bond)

Fixed vs floating rates:
Floating-rate bond: coupon rate is tied with benchmark rates, such as LIBOR, Bank Bill Swap Rate (BBSW), Australian Government Bond Rate or etc.
For floating-rate bond, coupon rate is reset periodically, i.e. semi-annually or quarterly.
Floating rate = benchmark rate + Spread, i.e. 6M USD LIBOR + 3.5%.


expain secured v unsecured bonds

Unsecured bonds are backed only by general faith and credit of issuers.
Secured bonds are backed by specific assets (‘collateral’), i.e. mortgage backed bonds, collateral trust bonds and etc.


explain zero coupon bonds

Long-term debt security but have no coupon payment during the life of the bond.
Also known as discount bonds or pure discount bonds.


explain convertible bonds

A type of ‘hybrid’: classified as liability at issuance
Investors have the right but not obligation (‘option’) to convert the bond into ordinary shares of the issuer of the bond.
Should it be priced higher or lower than the normal (‘vanilla’) bonds with same features except for the conversion option?


explain callable and puttable bonds

Callable bonds: bond issuer has the right to repurchase the bonds at a specified price (call price).
Callable bonds: companies could retire and reissue debt if interest rates fall.
Puttable bonds: the investors have the right to sell the bonds to the issuer at the put price.
Which one should be priced higher, if other features are held the same?


define face value

the value that borrower repays at maturity


define coupon rate

the annual coupon as a % of face value


define coupon

periodic cash flows paid by borrower
Similar to interest paid on bank loan
CP = Coupon Rate × Face Value / m
m is coupon frequency, equivalent to compounding frequency in Topic 2


define yeild to maturity

the market interest rate for investment similar to the bond.
a.k.a. discount rate, opportunity cost of capital


define market price (p0)

the price investors pay for the bond NOW


explain bond ratings

Bond ratings: grades assigned to bond issues based on the degree of default risk

Rating agency: S&P Investor Service, Moody’s and Fitch

Investment grade (low default risk) vs junk (high default risk) bond


explain preferred or preference shares

Preferred shares (or preference shares)
‘Hybrid’: have features of both debt and equity, but classified as equity in the balance sheet
Promise a fixed annual dividend payment, but can be ‘in arrears’.
Claims on assets and cash flows rank senior to ordinary shares, but subordinated to debt securities
Preferred dividends are not tax deductible – similar to ordinary shares, but different from debt


explain ordinary shares

Full voting rights
Subordinated right to a return on capital e.g. dividends
Residual claim on return of capital upon liquidation
Riskier than debt investment (from viewpoint of investors)


For a private company, the options to raise equity capital include

‘Angel investors’: wealthy individuals who are prepared to invest in a company that is at an early stage of development
Peter Thiel, co-founder of PayPal, invested US$500,000 in 10.2% shares of Facebook in 2002.
‘Shark Tank’

Private Equity: an investment company specialised in raising money to invest in young firms.
SoftBank invested US$20million in Alibaba in 2000 which turned to be US$58billion in 2014.

Initial Public Offering (IPO): the process where a private company goes public by inviting the general public to subscribe for their shares.
Investment banks are invited to help this process – ‘firm commitment’ vs. ‘best effort’.
After the IPO, the company becomes public and its shares are traded on the stock exchange.


For a public company, the options to raise equity capital (seasoned equity offering) include:

Public offering: issuing new shares to the public
Any investor can participate.
Because the offering price is often at a discount (lower than current market price), outstanding shareholders’ wealth will be diluted.

Rights Issue: issuing new shares to outstanding shareholders
Outstanding shareholders have the right to buy additional shares in the company at a price that is at a discount compared to the market price.
Their wealth will not be diluted – the discount in price is only available to outstanding shareholders.

Private Placement: new shares are sold to a restricted number of large investors, usually institutional investors at a price that is discounted compared to the market price.
Quick and cost-effective way of raising capital, but outstanding shareholders’ wealth will be diluted.


explain rights issue

Rights Issue: issuing new shares to outstanding shareholders
Outstanding shareholders have the right to buy additional shares in the company at a price that is at a discount compared to the market price.
Their wealth will not be diluted – the discount in price is only available to outstanding shareholders


explain private placement

Private Placement: new shares are sold to a restricted number of large investors, usually institutional investors at a price that is discounted compared to the market price.
Quick and cost-effective way of raising capital, but outstanding shareholders’ wealth will be diluted.


Two problems when we apply the above equation/formula
for valuation of equity

Going-concern’: n approaches to +∞.
Different from coupon and par value in bond valuation, dividends are not guaranteed.