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Flashcards in Week 8 Deck (21)
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1

Gesture Definition

Actions of Body that have clearly Non-Accidental expressiveness - INC facial expressions, EXCLUDING speech

CAN be COMMUNICATIVE
- not all: eg basic physical respose

2

Gesture Continuum

David McNiel invented framework for gesture continuum based on Adam Kendon work

- identifies diff types of gesture by diff properties in CONTINUUM (types fade one into another)

GLPEPS:
1. GESTICULATION
2. LANGUAGE SLOTTED GESTURES
3. PANTOMIME
4. EMBLEMS. POINTS
5. SIGN LANGUAGE

runs less compositional/extensive/conventional --> more composional/extensive/conventional

3

Gesture Classification

types classified according to
1. ASSOC. w SPEECH PRODUCTION
2. RELO TO LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE IN SPEECH
4. CONVENTIONALITY
5. COMPOSITIONALITY (comb. to express meaning)
6. SYNTACTICITY (comb. in principled ways)
7. EXTENSIVENESS

4

GESTICULATION

Idiosyncratic spontaneous actions that are synchronous with, and co-expressive with, speech

- accompanies speech
- less conventionality
- Little compositionality, non synctactic
- non exetnsive

Related to info structure
- rhythm, beat, pausing, managing attention

FUNCTIONS:
"co-semantic" = clarify/support speech content
a. - ICONIC eg. Hand(s) moves down when talking about ‘falling’
b.- METAPHORICAL eg. resepmbles object/action as metaphor for abstract

5

METAPHORICAL GESTURE

- Culture dependent.
1. time
= past/behind. future/front
2. Degree/Quantity
= more/up. less/down
3. Relationships btwn objects/ppl
= movement/direction in relation 2 speaker

6

LANGUAGE SLOTTED GESTURES

Can be INCORPORATED in structure of ling. expression
- stands in place of spoken/written expression
- interpretably only from spoken/written context

- I think he’s a bit [gesture].
- Just put it [gesture].
- And she’s so [gesture].

7

PANTOMIME

Mostly iconic rep of objects or actions (some indexical - eg points)

- Not necessarily accompany speech
- accomp. some para-linguistic vocalisaitons
- MEANINGFUL SEQUENCES (gesticulations do not)

8

POINTS

Diectic/indexical gesture
- point to specific physical object/location
- gen. conventional - range of options

- Independent of speech often
- can be integrated into ling structure (put it ___)
- Non-compositional
- Small set

9

EMBLEMS

CONVENTIONAL, not necessarily iconic
- ride gestures, come here
- y/n head gestures

Conventionality = agreement on form meaning in partic. culture/social group

- Independent of speech often
- can be integrated into ling structure (put it ___)
- Non-compositional
- typically Small set

10

SIGN LANGUAGES

Sign languages share the defining properties of language vs other types of communication.

The communicative use of movement of the body or body parts, including facial expression, with

- highly conventionalised gestures
- compositional
- syntactic: structural principles for the extensive set
- LARGE SET: infinite expressive range.
- independent of speech production

11

Sign languages of the world

AUSLAN, BSL, ASL:
NOT signed versions of eng, chinese etc.
- distinct system of grammar/ set of lexical items do not necessarily correspond to spoken lang

Signers often become literate in co-habiting spoken lang.

12

LANGUAGE + DIALECT DISTINCTIONS IN SIGN LANG.

Auslan heavily influenced by BSL - similar. Dialects of same lang

Auslan not highly mutually intelligible w ASL. Different languages

13

Structure of Sign Languages

Basic structural principles of spoken languages.
- phonology: signs component actions
- morphology: meaningful parts smaller than whole sign
- syntax: signs comb. in phrases/sentences
- lexicon: set of sign forms n meanings

14

Sign Lexicon

Many signs have ICONIC ASPECTS but the majority are substantially SYMBOLIC
- ARBITRARY relo between form and meaning

Each sign not necessarily correspond 1-1 with word in co-habit spoken lang. Most different meanings
EG Zeal = eagerness, anticipation, enthusiasm, yummy, lets go, good, etc

Most Auslan bilingual - literate in English
ENGLISH WORDS CAN BE INCORPORATED W FINGERSPELLING - code mixing

15

Sign Phonology

'word' consists of components
1. hand shape
2. location (primary + secondary)
3. Orientation
4. movement
5. Expression

16

HANDSHAPE

auslan about 35 diff handshapes

one handed vs 2 handed

17

LOCATION

Primary: 17 locations on body proper

Secondary: on or near hands, only possible for 2 handed signs

18

ORIENTATION

Directions in which palm and hand point

19

MOVEMENT

1. Small scale hand movements
2. large scale movement thru signing space

- COMBINED MOVEMENTS

20

EXPRESSION

Non-manual component
- head, brows, eyes, mouth, cheeks

Limited role in formation, significant at level phrase and clause

Do you like cake? – with raised eyebrows and wide eyes
vs
Don’t you like cake? – with frown and shake of head

21

Natural Lang vs Artificial systems

Auslan = Natural

- signs evolved naturally over time thru use in signing community

vs. ManuallyCoded English . not generally well accepted in deaf community