What differentiates Bipolar disorders from Depressive Disorders?
Presence of Mania
Which disorders are amongst the most common of the psychological disorders?
What is the key identifying feature of Bipolar Disorder?
alternation of manic episodes & major depressive episodes
Why are the specifiers (subtypes) useful?
they may predict course or response to treatment
What causes mood disorders?
Complex interaction of biological, psychological & social factors
- Stress hypothesis & neurohormones
- Learned helplessness, cognitive schemas Interpersonal disruptions
What are effective treatments?
biological & psychological both effective
combined = further 20% improvement
What psychological therapies are effective in treating Depressive Disorders?
Cognitive & interpersonal therapies
What is the long term prognosis for mood disorders?
relapse is common
What are the subset of the mood disorders that involve manic symptoms referred to as?
How are these differentiated?
Differentiated by intensity, duration & type of symptoms
What are disorders that only involve depressive symptoms commonly referred to as?
How are these disorders differentiated?
Differentiated by the severity & duration
What are the two main 'mood disorder' categories in DSM-5?
Bipolar and related disorders
What are the defining features of Depressive Disorders?
inability to experience pleasure
What are some really important components in the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder?
Must not have had a manic episode
needs to be almost all of the time for at least 2 weeks
What is the time course for Major Depressive Disorder?
an episodic disorder
symptoms come & go
although can drag on for months
tends to recur
- symptoms come & go
What are the defining features of Dysthymia (Persistent depressive disorder)
persistent, chronic, depressed mood
more than 2 years
How does Dysthymia differ from Major Depressive Disorder?
Dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder)
- 2 symptoms 2 years (1yr for child)
- 5 Symptoms, 2 week period
What are the 4 Depressive Disorders covered in the lecture?
Major Depressive Disorder
Dysthymia (Persistent Depressive Disorder)
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
Which two Depressive Disorders are new to DSM-5?
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Dysruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
What are the defining features of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?
affect up & down (moody)
impacted concentration, energy, sleep, appetite, physical pain
must cause significant distress/impairment
What are the defining features of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder?
Chronic, severe & persistent irritability
negative mood in at least 2 settings,
12 months, most of the time
- recurrent temper outbursts
- inconsistent with developmental level
- must be differentiated from other disorders
What other disorders often coexist with Major Depressive Disorder & Dysthymia?
60% Depressives also have anxiety
- 60% Depressives also have anxiety
How do symptoms of Depressive Disorders behave across the lifespan?
Symptoms change over lifespan
children → somatic complaints
older adults → distractibility & memory loss
Why are the MDD & BP disorder subtypes (specifiers) useful to a clinician?
enables them to build up a heterogeneous (individual) picture of how an individual may be presenting
How does a manic episode differ from a hypomanic episode?
- Significant impairment
- psychotic symptoms
- Symptoms - 1 week or hospitailisation
- cause distress/functional impairment
- Impairment not marked but observable to others
- no psychotic symptoms
- at least 4 days
- no hospitalisation
What has been hypothesised about the role of neurotransmitter serotonin in the aetiology of mood disorders?
BALANCE of neurotransmitterrs is important
Serotonin's primary function - regulate emotional reaction
- lower levels seen in mood disorders
- thought to lead to dysregulation in other neurotransmitters
when serotonin is low
- it allows other neurotransmitters are able to range more widely
- leads to imbalance
Which neurotransmitter has been thought to contribute to hypomania & depression?
What has been found to trigger instability in this neurotransmitter?
Dopamine agonist (L Dopa)
- Increased Dopamine levels > oversensitive receptors?
Depression (atypical & with psychotic features)
- Decreased Dopamine levels
Possible Triggers to imbalanced Neurotransmitters:
- Chronic Stress has been linked to reduced Dopamine levels & depression
What factors have been described in the Aetiology of Mood Disorders?
What theories have tried to explain these disorders?
Neurobiological factors, including:
- Genetic factors
- Neuroendocrine system
- Cognitive theories
- Learned helplessness
What distinguishes Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder from other disorders?
such as Bipolar, ADHD (may be comorbid), Oppositional Defiance Disorder (children), Intermittent Explosive Disorder.
its the level of chronicity that distinguishes this disorder from others with similar symptoms
What aspect of the HPA axis is hypothesised to contribute to Depressive Disorders & Bipolar Disorder?
poorly regulated cortisol system 1:15:00
What is important to note about the influence of genes in mood disorders?
they don't cause disorders
they confer a vulnerability
sets stage for disorder in context of other factors
What social aspect contributes to Depressive Disorders?
Stressors Lack of Support to deal with Stressor 1:17:00
What bolsters the odds of successful treatment for Bipolar Disorder by 20%?
Combining psychotherapy with medication
- bolsters odds of recovery
- by up to 20% above either alone
What happens in the amygdala during depression?
What is generally seen in other brain regions?
What are the behavioural outcomes?
- increased activity
- hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli
- diminished activation
- decreased volume in other regions
- less activity in these regions involved in planning etc
- increased emotion
- less ability to plan
What new lines of neurobiological research
have shed some light on what differentiates
Major Depressive DIsorder from Bipolar Disorder?
- Basal ganglia
- particularly active
- involved in reward reactions
- differentiates Manic from MDD
- Changes in neuronal membranes
- influencing how readily they can be activated
- not seen in MDD