Week 9 - Abdomen, Violence/Mental, Genitals, Nutrition Flashcards Preview

HAP FINAL - CK > Week 9 - Abdomen, Violence/Mental, Genitals, Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 9 - Abdomen, Violence/Mental, Genitals, Nutrition Deck (157)
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1

Where do we expect to hear DULLNESS on percussion in abdominal assessment

liver, spleen, adipose tissue, over feces

2

Hyperresonance in abdomen can indicate:

gaseous distension

3

Costovertebral angle tenderness in abdomen can indicate:

kidney inflammation

4

What does the person's abodomen look like if they have distention from ASCITES

o Inspection-Single curve & everted umbilicus; bulging flanks; taut skin; increased abdominal girth
o Auscultation-Normoactive, diminished over fluid
o Percussion-Tympany over bowels but dull over fluid
o Palpation-Taut skin and increased pressure

5

What is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer?

human papilloma virus (HPV)
79 million have HPV in US

6

what is a priapism

a long and painful erection (not from sexual excitation). This can occur in PTs w/ leukemia or hemoglobinopathies (e.g. sickle cell)

7

What qualifies as binge drinking

Binge drinking= 4 drinks in 2 hours for women, 5 drinks in 2 hours for men

8

How much alcohol is safe for a pregnant woman to drink?

NONE!

9

What are 4 general steps for alcohol screening and brief intervention?

■ Step 1: Ask about alcohol use
■ Step 2: Assess for alcohol use disorders
■ Step 3: Advise and assist
■ Step 4: Follow-up and continued support

10

What are the signs of UNCOMPLICATED alcohol withdrawal?

peaks at 2nd day, improves by 4th/5th day. Most s/s are GI or neuro
o Tremors of hands, tongue, eyes
o Anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting
o Autonomic hyperactivity – tachycardia, sweating, elevated BP
o Headache, insomnia, anxiety/depression, irritability, hallucinations

11

What are the signs of severe alcohol withdrawal?

Withdrawal delirium = delirium tremors - occurs within 1 week of cessation
■ Coarse, irregular tremor
■ Extreme autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia, sweating)
■ Vivid hallucinations and elusions, agitated behavior
■ Fever

12

What scale can be used to assess alcohol withdrawal?

○ CIWA scale (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment) for Alcohol

Max score: 67
● Mild withdrawal

13

What scale can be used to assess opiate withdrawal?

Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS)

Max score: 48
○ Mild withdrawal 36

14

Hypoactive bowel sounds are common in patients with what conditions?

constipation and paralytic ileus (paralysis of the intestinal muscles)

15

Hyperactive bowel sounds are common in patients with what conditions?

gastroenteritis (An intestinal infection marked by diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever) and diarrhea

16

What are venous hums found during abdominal assessment?

continuous sounds found in the epigastric region and around the umbilicus and caused by portal hypertension.

17

What % of GI diseases can be diagnoses by obtaining a thorough health history?

80-90%

18

What is the 2nd leading cause of US cancer deaths

colorectal cancer

19

What is the most common blood-borne U.S. viral infection?

Hepatitis C

20

The RUQ includes:

liver
galbladder
head of pancreas
right adrenal gland
hepatic fixture of colon
duodenum
part of ascending and transverse colon

21

LUQ includes

body of pancreas
stomach
spleen
left lobe of liver
left adrenal gland
splenic fixture of colon
left kidney
left adrenal
part of transverse and descending colon

22

RLQ includes

cecum
appendix
right ureter
right ovary
right spermatic cord

23

LLQ includes

sigmoid colon
part of descending colon
left ovary and tube
left ureter
left spermatic cord

24

after middle age, where does fat accumulate in females?

in the suprapubic area due to decreased estrogen levels

25

what are age related changes in abdomen?

1. salivation decreasess, there is decreased taste
2. esophageal emptying is delayed
3. gastric acid secretion decreases with aging, leading to pernicious anemia (decreased B12 absorption)
4. Incidence of gallstones increases
5. liver size decreases with age, although most liver function remains normal. prolonged drug metabolism leads to increased side effects.

26

common causes of constipation include:

decrease physical activity
inadequate water intake
low fiber diet
side effects of meds
IBS
hypothyroidism

27

how do you avoid abdominal tensing?

don't place arms above head
warm stethescope
short nails
examine painful areas LAST to avoid muscle guarding
have PT bend at knees while supine

28

what is a scaphoid abdomen?

when it is sucked inwards
mainly seen in sever malnutritional status, marasmus, cachexia, acute diffusive peritonitis due to muscle rigidity.

29

the umbilicus may be everted with

pregnancy
ascites
underlying mass
umbilical hernia

30

bluish periumbilical color occurs with

intraabdominal bleeding (cullen sign)