Flashcards in Week 9 - Abdomen, Violence/Mental, Genitals, Nutrition Deck (157)
Where do we expect to hear DULLNESS on percussion in abdominal assessment
liver, spleen, adipose tissue, over feces
Hyperresonance in abdomen can indicate:
Costovertebral angle tenderness in abdomen can indicate:
What does the person's abodomen look like if they have distention from ASCITES
o Inspection-Single curve & everted umbilicus; bulging flanks; taut skin; increased abdominal girth
o Auscultation-Normoactive, diminished over fluid
o Percussion-Tympany over bowels but dull over fluid
o Palpation-Taut skin and increased pressure
What is the greatest risk factor for cervical cancer?
human papilloma virus (HPV)
79 million have HPV in US
what is a priapism
a long and painful erection (not from sexual excitation). This can occur in PTs w/ leukemia or hemoglobinopathies (e.g. sickle cell)
What qualifies as binge drinking
Binge drinking= 4 drinks in 2 hours for women, 5 drinks in 2 hours for men
How much alcohol is safe for a pregnant woman to drink?
What are 4 general steps for alcohol screening and brief intervention?
■ Step 1: Ask about alcohol use
■ Step 2: Assess for alcohol use disorders
■ Step 3: Advise and assist
■ Step 4: Follow-up and continued support
What are the signs of UNCOMPLICATED alcohol withdrawal?
peaks at 2nd day, improves by 4th/5th day. Most s/s are GI or neuro
o Tremors of hands, tongue, eyes
o Anorexia, malaise, nausea, vomiting
o Autonomic hyperactivity – tachycardia, sweating, elevated BP
o Headache, insomnia, anxiety/depression, irritability, hallucinations
What are the signs of severe alcohol withdrawal?
Withdrawal delirium = delirium tremors - occurs within 1 week of cessation
■ Coarse, irregular tremor
■ Extreme autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia, sweating)
■ Vivid hallucinations and elusions, agitated behavior
What scale can be used to assess alcohol withdrawal?
○ CIWA scale (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment) for Alcohol
Max score: 67
● Mild withdrawal
What scale can be used to assess opiate withdrawal?
Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS)
Max score: 48
○ Mild withdrawal 36
Hypoactive bowel sounds are common in patients with what conditions?
constipation and paralytic ileus (paralysis of the intestinal muscles)
Hyperactive bowel sounds are common in patients with what conditions?
gastroenteritis (An intestinal infection marked by diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever) and diarrhea
What are venous hums found during abdominal assessment?
continuous sounds found in the epigastric region and around the umbilicus and caused by portal hypertension.
What % of GI diseases can be diagnoses by obtaining a thorough health history?
What is the 2nd leading cause of US cancer deaths
What is the most common blood-borne U.S. viral infection?
The RUQ includes:
head of pancreas
right adrenal gland
hepatic fixture of colon
part of ascending and transverse colon
body of pancreas
left lobe of liver
left adrenal gland
splenic fixture of colon
part of transverse and descending colon
right spermatic cord
part of descending colon
left ovary and tube
left spermatic cord
after middle age, where does fat accumulate in females?
in the suprapubic area due to decreased estrogen levels
what are age related changes in abdomen?
1. salivation decreasess, there is decreased taste
2. esophageal emptying is delayed
3. gastric acid secretion decreases with aging, leading to pernicious anemia (decreased B12 absorption)
4. Incidence of gallstones increases
5. liver size decreases with age, although most liver function remains normal. prolonged drug metabolism leads to increased side effects.
common causes of constipation include:
decrease physical activity
inadequate water intake
low fiber diet
side effects of meds
how do you avoid abdominal tensing?
don't place arms above head
examine painful areas LAST to avoid muscle guarding
have PT bend at knees while supine
what is a scaphoid abdomen?
when it is sucked inwards
mainly seen in sever malnutritional status, marasmus, cachexia, acute diffusive peritonitis due to muscle rigidity.
the umbilicus may be everted with