Week 6: Lung and Breasts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6: Lung and Breasts Deck (45)
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1

bronchodialators

i.e. albuterol, dialates the airways so we can breathe easier

2

glucocorticoids

help reduce inflammation

3

some drugs such as NSAIDs and motrin can have what impact on asthma patients?

can cause wheezing and exacerbate bronchoconstriction

4

bulging

Trapped air in forced expiration associated with asthma or emphysema

5

bradypnea vs hypoventilation

bradypnea (slow and deep RR,

6

tachypnea vs hyperventilation

tachypnea (fast and shallow, >20 bpm)
hyperventilation (fast and deep RR)

7

Cheyne-stokes breathing is normal in what populations?

children and elderly, or PTs with heart or kidney failure, or increased intracranial pressure.

8

biot's breathing pattern

quick, shallow inspiration followed by regular and irregular periods of apnea, usually seen in PTs w/ brain damage or overdose of opiates

9

hyperresonance heard on lungs

too much air is present (emphysema or pneumothorax)

10

dullness heard on lungs

abnormal lung density such as in lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, atelectasis, or tumor

11

where are bronchial lung sounds typically heard?

over trachea and larynx

high pitch, loud amplitude, inspiration

12

where are broncho-vesicular lung sounds typically heard

over major bronchi

They have a moderate pitch and 1:1 expiratory -versus-inspiratory ratio

13

where are vesicular lung sounds typically heard

over the peripheral lung fields

low pitch, soft amplitude, inspiration>expiration

14

what's the recommended age to start doing mammograms?

40 years
Why not earlier? Risk of false positives (breast tissue is very firm when we're younger and can give false positives)

15

what is the leading cause of cancer in women?

breast cancer

16

who is at a higher risk for breast cancer?

-African-American women have highest death risk for any age
-White women OVER age 45
-African american women UNDER age 45

17

What are the non-modifiable risk factors for breast cancer?

 Female gender
 Age > 50 years
 Mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes – (women w/ BRCA2, the risk is 45% of developing breast cancer. Increased ovarian cancer risk is also associated with these genes.)
 First-degree relative w/ breast cancer
 Early menarche ( 55 years)
 High breast tissue density

18

What are the modifiable risk factors for breast cancer?

 Nulliparity (no kids) or first child after age 30 years
 Never breastfed
 Recent oral contraceptive use
 Recent and long-term estrogen and progestin use
 Alcohol intake of ≥ 1 drink daily
 Obesity (especially after menopause) and high fat diet
 Physical inactivity

19

What is Cheyne-stokes breathing?

regular irregular rhythm that cycles from deep and fast to shallow and slow, with some periods of apnea

20

Agonal breathing

found in PTs at end of life.
Irregular pattern with changing rate and depth

21

apnea

no breaths

22

kussmaul breathing

seen in PTs with DKA bc body is attempting to remove CO2 to normalize pH

23

Crackles (coarse and fine)

discontinuous sounds cause by fluid in the airways or alveoli, or that result from the opening of collapsed airways and alveoli as they reinflate during deep breathing (hairs rubbing or velcro)

24

Wheezes

continuous, high-pitched, musical sounds caused by air squeezing through narrowed airways (seen in ASTHMA, bronchitis, emphysema) generally on expiration)

25

Rhonchi

continuous, low-pitched, snoring sounds resulting from secretions moving around in airways (may CLEAR with coughing, seen in PTs with chronic bronchitis or pneumonia)

26

pleural friction rub

loud, coarse and low-pitched grating or creaking sound (squeaky door). Seen in pleuritis

27

stridor

loud, high-pitched, crowing or honking sound louder in upper airway

seen in croup, obstructed airway, epiglottis

28

A 92-year-old woman with a history of COPD presents with increasing shortness of breath, decreased lung sounds in the bases, increased ankle edema, and 5-lb weight gain in 1 week. What is the most likely problem?

excess fluid volume

COPD PTs often retain fluid because of the increased workload of the heart that the disease imposes

29

What is the most common cause of COPD?

smoking!

30

When the nurse assesses the client with respiratory symptoms, which of the following complaints should be evaluated first?
a. chest pain
b. dyspnea
c. cough
d. sputum

dyspnea