Flashcards in Week 6: Lung and Breasts Deck (45)
i.e. albuterol, dialates the airways so we can breathe easier
help reduce inflammation
some drugs such as NSAIDs and motrin can have what impact on asthma patients?
can cause wheezing and exacerbate bronchoconstriction
Trapped air in forced expiration associated with asthma or emphysema
bradypnea vs hypoventilation
bradypnea (slow and deep RR,
tachypnea vs hyperventilation
tachypnea (fast and shallow, >20 bpm)
hyperventilation (fast and deep RR)
Cheyne-stokes breathing is normal in what populations?
children and elderly, or PTs with heart or kidney failure, or increased intracranial pressure.
biot's breathing pattern
quick, shallow inspiration followed by regular and irregular periods of apnea, usually seen in PTs w/ brain damage or overdose of opiates
hyperresonance heard on lungs
too much air is present (emphysema or pneumothorax)
dullness heard on lungs
abnormal lung density such as in lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, atelectasis, or tumor
where are bronchial lung sounds typically heard?
over trachea and larynx
high pitch, loud amplitude, inspiration
where are broncho-vesicular lung sounds typically heard
over major bronchi
They have a moderate pitch and 1:1 expiratory -versus-inspiratory ratio
where are vesicular lung sounds typically heard
over the peripheral lung fields
low pitch, soft amplitude, inspiration>expiration
what's the recommended age to start doing mammograms?
Why not earlier? Risk of false positives (breast tissue is very firm when we're younger and can give false positives)
what is the leading cause of cancer in women?
who is at a higher risk for breast cancer?
-African-American women have highest death risk for any age
-White women OVER age 45
-African american women UNDER age 45
What are the non-modifiable risk factors for breast cancer?
Age > 50 years
Mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes – (women w/ BRCA2, the risk is 45% of developing breast cancer. Increased ovarian cancer risk is also associated with these genes.)
First-degree relative w/ breast cancer
Early menarche ( 55 years)
High breast tissue density
What are the modifiable risk factors for breast cancer?
Nulliparity (no kids) or first child after age 30 years
Recent oral contraceptive use
Recent and long-term estrogen and progestin use
Alcohol intake of ≥ 1 drink daily
Obesity (especially after menopause) and high fat diet
What is Cheyne-stokes breathing?
regular irregular rhythm that cycles from deep and fast to shallow and slow, with some periods of apnea
found in PTs at end of life.
Irregular pattern with changing rate and depth
seen in PTs with DKA bc body is attempting to remove CO2 to normalize pH
Crackles (coarse and fine)
discontinuous sounds cause by fluid in the airways or alveoli, or that result from the opening of collapsed airways and alveoli as they reinflate during deep breathing (hairs rubbing or velcro)
continuous, high-pitched, musical sounds caused by air squeezing through narrowed airways (seen in ASTHMA, bronchitis, emphysema) generally on expiration)
continuous, low-pitched, snoring sounds resulting from secretions moving around in airways (may CLEAR with coughing, seen in PTs with chronic bronchitis or pneumonia)
pleural friction rub
loud, coarse and low-pitched grating or creaking sound (squeaky door). Seen in pleuritis
loud, high-pitched, crowing or honking sound louder in upper airway
seen in croup, obstructed airway, epiglottis
A 92-year-old woman with a history of COPD presents with increasing shortness of breath, decreased lung sounds in the bases, increased ankle edema, and 5-lb weight gain in 1 week. What is the most likely problem?
excess fluid volume
COPD PTs often retain fluid because of the increased workload of the heart that the disease imposes
What is the most common cause of COPD?