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FMS Week 5 > Weekly Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Weekly Review Deck (19):
1

Identify the blood vessel:

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•Both ducts and vessels are tubular structures; the difference is in the epithelial lining. The epithelial lining of a blood vessel is designed to allow diffusion of substances into and out of the vessels, so it is squamous epithelium: a thin, permeable layer (as a side note, the epithelial lining in a blood vessel is called "endothelium"). The epithelial lining of a duct is designed for secretion, so the cell has to be bigger to house the secretory machinery, so it is cuboidal or columnar epithelium.

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2

Select the endocrine portion of this organ:

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3

Select the exocrine portion of this organ:

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4

Identify the lamina propria

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Lamina propria is another name for the loose connective tissue that supports epithelium. It is NOT the same thing as the basement membrane, which is a specialized area of connective tissue between the epithelium and lamina propria.

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5

Select the layers of the colonic mucosa:

Epithelium

Lamina propria

Muscularis mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis propria

Serosa

Epithelium

Lamina propria

Muscularis mucosa

All segments of the GI tract are divided into four layers: the mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, and muscular mucosae), the submucosa, the muscularis propria (inner circular muscle layer, intermuscular space, and outer longitudinal muscle layer), and the serosa. Mucosa is the innermost layer, which is structurally and functionally the most complex and important area. The mucosal surfaces of the body are the areas where important absorptive function occurs. The mucosa consists of three layers. The first layer facing the intestinal lumen is made up of epithelial cells, which is a single layer in the GI tract and is attached to a basement membrane overlying the second layer, the lamina propria, which consists of subepithelial connective tissue and lymph nodes, underneath which is the third and deepest layer called muscularis mucosae. This is a continuous sheet of smooth muscle cells that lies at the base of the lamina propria. The entire mucosa rests on the submucosa, beneath which is the muscularis propria. The outermost layer is named as the serosa or, if it lacks an outer layer of mesothelial cells, the adventitia. The submucosa consists of a variety of inflammatory cells, lymphatics, autonomic nerve fibers, and ganglion cells. This area is also a branching and distribution zone for arteries and small venous channels.

6

Identify the blood vessel

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Adipocytes usually appear under the microscope as empty spaces because fat does not survive the usual slide preparation process. Notice the flattened cell nucleus adjacent to the open space. The blood vessel is sometimes an empty space surrounded by numerous flattened (squamous) nuclei, plus muscle and/or connective tissue depending on how large the vessel is.

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7

Which cells normally line the body cavities?

Melanocytes

Squamous epithelium

Stratified columnar epithelium

Dense connective tissue

Nervous tissue

Squamous epithelium

8

What leads to the phenomenon shown in this photo?

Dysfunction of the tight junctions

Dysfunction of the gap junctions

Dysfunction of the hemidesmosomes

Dysfunction of the stratum basale

Dysfunction of the dense connective tissue

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Dysfunction of the tight junctions

9

The tissue most likely to be found in this area is

Stratified squamous epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Loose connective tissue

Dense connective tissue

Adipose tissue

Dense connective tissue

10

What type of muscle cells are found in the GI tract?

Cardiac myocytes

Skeletal muscle

Smooth muscle

Stratified muscle

Cuboidal muscle

Smooth muscle

11

The steps involved in obtaining this image include

Formalin fixation

Freezing

Heating

Staining with hematoxylin

Staining with silver

Paraffin embedding

Sectioning into thin slices

Sectioning into cubes

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Formalin fixation

Staining with hematoxylin

Paraffin embedding

Sectioning into thin slices

 

12

What are protective mechanisms for cells in the GI tract?

Epithelial tight junctions

Mucous production

Production of bicarbonate to neutralize acid

Stratified architecture

All of the above 

13

Identify the cell nucleolus

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14

Identify the extracellular matrix

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15

The part of the digestive system that produces bile is the

Gallbladder

Pancreas

Liver

Small intestine

Appendix

Liver 

16

Chronic physical or chemical irritation leads to what change in the cell?

Atrophy

Angiogenesis

Apoptosis

Metaplasia

Hyperplasia

Metaplasia

17

The heart on the right is normal. The heart on the left shows

Atrophy

Hypertrophy

Metaplasia

Desquamation

Apoptosis

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Hypertrophy

18

Stem cells for the skin are located in what layer?

Stratum basale

Dermis

Stratum corneum

Lamina propria

Stratum langerhans

Stratum Basale 

19

What type of gland is depicted here?

Lamellar

Exocrine

Endocrine

Dermal

Islet

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Endocrine