What is Forensic Psychology?
The application of psychological knowledge or methods to a task faced by the legal system.
List at least 4 roles of Forensic Psychologists
Basic scientist of the law Policy evaluator Forensic evaluator Treatment provider Correctional Psychologist Trial Consultant
List theories of crime
Societal or macro-level theories
Community or locality theories
Group or social influence theories
Individual or difference theories
What are the 5 principles of the 18th century Classical school of thought?
Rationalism Hedonism Punishment Human rights Due process
Psychological theories of crime (Psychodynamic)
Early childhood experiences impact behaviour later - Mary Ainsworth attachment theory
Biological theories of crime
Genetic vulnerabilities (twin and adoption studies) Brain injury (pre-frontal cortex) Physiological Abnormalities (testosterone)
Psychological theories of crime (Cognitive)
Individuals move through stages of moral development in which their thinking about moral problems changes. Criminals are proposed to have a lower level of reasoning
Psychological theories of crime (Behavioural)
Children learn about aggressive behaviour from parents - social learning theory
Psychological theories of crime (Personality)
Crime is due to personality defects, such as psychopathy, characterised by callousness, lack of empathy, and aggression.
Psychological theories of crime (Intelligence)
Low intelligence might indicate poor learning skills and this was once linked with criminal behaviour. (No support for this theory)
Sociological theories of crime (General strain theory)
strain refers to a relationship in which others are not treating the individual as he/she would like to be treated.
Categories of strain:
- failure to achieve positively valued goals
- removal of positively valued stimuli
- presentation of negatively valued stimuli
Sociological theories of crime (subcultural theory)
Conflict between norms held by different groups causes criminal behaviour.
Gangs enforce behavioural norms about how to behave, which is as odds with larger society