Flashcards in Who Ruled In The Medieval Period? Deck (19):
How powerful was the king?
Relied on nobles, could be deposed by someone with more power
How powerful was the church?
Enormous moral influence, respected churchmen, monarch needs to co-operate to be popular, vast wealth
How powerful were the barons?
Kings greatest asset, operated on the kings behalf, provided troops, potential threat, wealthy and powerful, barons had to be controlled
Why did parliament emerge?
Formed in 1200s up of lesser nobles and wealthy merchants, not as powerful as barons, people wanted a voice
What was the importance of the church in the 1100s?
Medieval mass media, helped people get to heaven, power behind the throne, owned land and employed people
Could church leaders challenge the king?
Yes, churchmen often clashed with their kings over matters such as tax and appoint action
What problems did Henry II face?
Inherited a kingdom of chaos, later struggles with Thomas Becket
What happened with Henry II and Thomas Becket?
Becket was more loyal to the church, resisted Henry's demands, argumentative and difficult man, Becket was murdered after a long struggle, negative side effects for Henry
What were King John's weaknesses?
Didn't grasp the give and take relationship, expected rebellions, couldn't manage the war with France, bad relationship with the barons
What were the costs of John's large tax increase?
Insisted he was present for all court cases, 'sold' justice, clashed with the church for power, fell out with barons when he didn't involve them in decisions
Outline the Magna Carta and the Barons' war
In 1215 barons rebelled against John, forced to accept the Magna Carta, war broke out again when John overturned the MC, John killed in 1216
When was parliament first held?
1230-40s, Henry III regularly asked barons for money, he began to include lesser nobles and representatives
Who was Simon de Montfort?
Leader of baron rebellion, forced the provisions of Oxford, defeated Henry in civil war in 1264, empowered parliament, killed in 1265
How did parliament advance from 1000-1485?
(1000) barons give king advice when he asks for it, (1215) Kings need to meet with the barons, (1264) the commons are sometimes invited, (1337-1485) commons increase in importance
How did Richard II struggle with peasants?
Peasants' Revolt, protests again taxation, other issues, peasant army besieged London, Richard offered concessions
How did Richard II struggle with barons?
Low ranking men were being promoted, barons wanted more power, king defeated and forced to execute several close allies
How did Richard get revenge ?
Gradually restored authority, arrested leading opponents in 1397, exiled Henry Bolingbroke
How did Henry IV seize the throne?
Bolingbroke returned from exile to defeat and imprison Richard in 1399, Henry argued he had a legal claim, records changed to state that Richard abdicated