Wk 13. Antianginal Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Wk 13. Antianginal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wk 13. Antianginal Deck (38):
1

1. What type of angina is caused by coronary spasm?

Variant

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2. What kind of angina does not respond to beta-blockers?

Variant

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3. Nitrates predominately vasodilate which vessels in low doses? Prevent spasm where?

Veins. Coronary arteries.

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4. Headaches due to nitrates can be expected to do what over time?

Diminish

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5. What adverse effect is triggered by baroreceptors in response to venous dilation?

Reflex tachycardia

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6. What drugs are contraindicated in men who are taking nitrates?

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

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7. Which nitrate formulation is recommended for intermittent angina treatment at home?

SL nitroglycerin

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8. How are SL nitroglycerin tablets taken?

1 Tablet (0.3-0.6 mg) every 5 minutes x 3, Emergency department if angina persists 5 min

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9. What must the nurse check before administering nitroglycerin?

Blood pressure and pulse

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10. Why should nitroglycerin paste be removed at night?

Prevent tachyphylaxis (tolerance)

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11. How would a dry mouth affect the absorption of nitroglycerin?

Slows absorption

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12. Nitrates in low doses decrease afterload or preload? Arterioles or veins?

Preload. Veins.

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13. Selective beta-blockers block which receptors at low doses?

Beta-1

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14. Beta-blockers decrease three parameters. What are they?

Heart rate, blood pressure, contractility

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15. What may beta-blockers mask in diabetes and during allergy shots?

Signs of hypoglycemia and allergic reactions.

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16. Which drug given for allergic reactions may be inhibited by beta-blockers?

Epinephrine

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17. In asthmatics, beta-blockers may cause what symptom? Block what receptor?

Bronchoconstriction. Beta-2.

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18. Beta-blockers with verapamil or diltiazem can severely decrease which vital sign parameter?

Heart rate

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19. Abrupt cessation of beta-blockers can lead to excitation or depression of the beta-adrenergic receptors?

Excitation

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20. Do not give beta-blockers if the pulse is below ____ or the systolic BP is below____.

Pulse 50, SBP 90

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21. What is the family of calcium-channel blockers which does not include verapamil or diltiazem?

Dihydropyridines

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22. Calcium-channel blockers vasodilate which blood vessels?

Arterioles

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23. Calcium-channel blockers decrease afterload or preload?

Afterload

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24. Dihydropyridines may cause what side effect which can be treated with beta-blockers?

Reflex tachycardia

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25. Swelling of extremities may be caused by what 2 classes of antihypertensive agents?

Nitrates & calcium-channel blockers

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26. Calcium-channel blockers are used for what kinds of angina?

Stable and variant

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27. Vasodilation of arteries reduces afterload or preload?

Afterload

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28. Digoxin (Lanoxin) is used in heart failure primarily for what effect?

Positive inotropic effect

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29. What should the nurse do before giving digoxin?

Take the apical pulse for 1 minute.

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30. What electrolyte competes with digoxin for the receptor?

Potassium

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31. What are some signs of digitalis toxicity?

Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, arrhythmias, weakness, yellow vision, halos around lights, blurred vision

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32. What is the antidote for digoxin toxicity?

Digibind

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33. What common drug classes can precipitate digoxin toxicity?

Loop and thiazide diuretics

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34. What are the effects of alpha-1 activation by catecholamines?

Vasoconstriction of arterioles in skin, viscera, & mucous membranes and in veins.

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35. What are the effects of beta-1 activation by catecholamines?

Increased heart rate, contractility, and conduction rate. Renin release.

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36. What are the effects of beta-2 activation in the lungs and liver?

Bronchodilation & glycogenolysis.

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37. What are the effects of dopamine activation?

Renal blood vessel dilation.

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38. Which IV continuous drug is used to increase contractility without causing vasoconstriction?

Dobutamine (Dobutrex).