Flashcards in Wk 15. Herbal Therapy Deck (37):
1. Which panel is considered the expert on herbals?
German Commission E
2. What are some adulterants found in herbal mixtures?
Lead, arsenic, mercury, ephedra, chlorpheniramine, androgens
3. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, botanical products can be sold as what?
4. What are two statements which must be placed on the label of herbal preparations?
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA.
5. In what way can labels make therapeutic claims?
Favorably influences body structure or function
6. What are three standards proposed by the FDA in the Current Good Manufacturing Practices?
No adulterants, contaminants, or impurities
Accurate labeling of active and inactive ingredients
Quality control procedures
7. Why is the seal of approval from the U.S. Pharmacopeia, ConsumerLab, Natural Products Association, or the NSF International important?
This seal denotes that the product meets the quality standards.
8. What are five herbs that can suppress platelet aggregation and increase the risk of bleeding with anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs?
Ginkgo biloba, garlic, ginger root, glucosamine, feverfew
9. How does St. John’s wort influence the metabolism of other drugs?
Accelerates metabolism of other drugs
10. Why is black cohosh used?
Menopause symptoms, PMS, menstrual cramps
11. Why is black cohosh contraindicated in pregnancy?
12. Why is coenzyme Q-10 used?
To protect the muscles from injury from HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and to protect muscle and nerves from damage due to deranged mitochondrial metabolism.
13. Why is cranberry used?
To prevent urinary tract infections and to reduce urine odor.
14. Why is echinacea used?
Oral - stimulate immune function, suppress inflammation, treat viral infections
Topical – wounds, burns, skin ailments
15. Hic herbal remedies are related to the daisy or ragweed family?
Echinacea, feverfew, St. John’s wort
16. Why is feverfew used?
Prevents and treats migraines.
17. What are the lipid alterations caused by fresh garlic?
Decreased triglycerides, decreased LDL, increased HDL
18. How does garlic affect blood pressure?
Modestly reduces blood pressure.
19. Why is ginger used?
To suppress vomiting, nausea, and vertigo. To reduce pain and inflammation from chronic inflammatory conditions.
20. What brain and gut receptors are blocked by ginger root?
21. Why is ginkgo biloba used?
To increase pain-free walking distances with peripheral arterial disease.
22. How do changes in the vascular system provide ginkgo’s effects?
Vasodilation, decreased capillary fragility and thrombosis
23. Why is glucosamine used? How does it work?
Osteoarthritis of the hip, knee, and wrist. Stimulates chondrocytes and acts as a substrate for cartilage and synovial fluid.
24. Which salt of glucosamine is effective?
25. Why is green tea used?
Weight loss, concentration, and to prevent or slow cancers.
26. How does green tea affect warfarin (Coumadin)?
The vitamin K in green tea counteracts the effects of warfarin (Coumadin)
27. How does the replacement of gut normal flora with probiotics affect diarrhea, irritable bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis?
Decreases diarrhea from rotaviruses and antibiotics in children. Reduces pain and bloating in irritable bowel disease. Induces remission in ulcerative colitis.
28. Why is saw palmetto used?
Relieves urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy
29. How does saw palmetto work? What is a gender-based recommendation?
May block androgen and alpha-adrenergic receptors or suppress inflammation. Pregnant women should not ingest.
30. Why is soy used? What percentage of women is able to convert soy to an estrogenic compound?
To reduce the risk of cancer and to treat hot flashes and osteoporosis. 50%.
31. How do soy’s effects vary in relation to women’s estrogen levels?
Antiestrogenic effect in women with normal estrogen levels. Estrogenic effect in postmenopausal women.
32. Why is St. John’s wort used?
Relieves mild to moderate depression
33. How does St. John’s wort affect three neurotransmitters?
Increases serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by decreasing reuptake
34. St. John’s wort may cause what syndrome if taken with amphetamines, cocaine, or antidepressants?
35. Why is valerian used?
Promotes sleep, reduces anxiety-associated restlessness
36. Valerian increases the availability of what neurotransmitter?
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at CNS synapses. Also may act as a GABA agonist.