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Flashcards in women and leadership Deck (12):

popular perspective

-reported differences between men and women:
women viewed as inferior to men
women lacked skills and traits necessary for managerial success
-researches ignored issues related to gender and leadership until the 1970's (womens right to vote)


leadership labyrinth

-human capital
-gender differences


the glass ceiling

-you can see where you want to go but you'll never get there (refer to women)


6 gender differences did occur

1. Women and men were more effective in leadership roles congruent with their gender ex) nurses
2. Women were less effective to the extent that leader role was masculinized
3. Women were less effective than men in military positions (RCMP also)
4. Women were somewhat more effective than men in education, government, and social service organizations
5. Women were substantially more effective than men in middle management positions
6. Women were less effective when they were supervised or rated by a high number of males


human capital differences

1. Pipeline problem- women have less education, training, and work experience than men resulting in a dearth of qualified (this is slowly changing)
2. Pipeline is not empty but leaking- explanation that women haven’t been in managerial positions long enough for natural career progression to occur (not supported by research)
3. Division of labour- explanation that women self-select out of leadership tracks by choosing “mommy track” positions that do not funnel into leadership positions (not supported by research)


gender differences

-face significant gender biases and social disincentives when they self-promote
-are less likely than men to ask for what they want
-are less likely to negotiate than men
-show the same level of identification with & commitment to paid employment roles as men
-are less likely to promote themselves for leadership positions than men
-were less likely than men to emerge as group leaders, more likely to serve as social facilitators



-stereotypes are a cognitive shortcut, becomes damaging when we do it over and over
-influence the way people process info regarding groups and group members
-men: agentic characteristics
-women: communal characteristics
note: these are not complete opposites
-we meet someone opposite, and then can change our outlook


gender stereotypes

-include beliefs about the attributes of men and women and prescribe how men and women ought to be


how stereotypes affect women themselves

-women may assimilate to stereotype OR may counter the stereotype. this depends on:
-leader self-efficacy
-explicitness of the stereotype
-type of task
-gender compositions of the group
-power of the leader
-whether stereotype threats are combined


coaching and sport admin: reasons for under representation

1. Women have fewer established connections and networks in elite programs
2. Subjective evaluative criteria used by search committees (females are perceived to be less qualified than males)
3. Support systems & professional development opportunities for women have been scarce
4. Many women do not see spaces for them in corporate cultures of sport programs
5. Sport organizations are seldom sensitive to family responsibilities among coaches and administrators
6. Women experience more sexual harassment and perceive they are judged by more demanding standards than those used to judge men



-A more androgynous conception of leadership enhances leadership effectiveness by giving people opportunity to engage in the best leadership practices, intelligence, social skills, initiative, and ability to persuade
-research on gender and leadership helps:
1. dispels myths about gender gap
2. shines a light on aspects of the gender barrier that are difficult to see are over looked



-put a greater emphasis on understanding the role of race and ethnicity (and other types of diversity) in leadership processes
-examine the differences in the impact of race or ethnicity and gender on leadership
-expanded into other global regions (other than western contexts)