Women's Health- Contraception Flashcards Preview

Clinical Medication: HEENT > Women's Health- Contraception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Women's Health- Contraception Deck (80)
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1

what are the two methods of contraception?

1: Preventing the sperm and egg from uniting
a:Preventing ovulation ( BCP)
b: Creating a barrier ( condom)

2: Prevention of implantation and growth of the embryo.

2

what factors affect choosing contraception?

1: Efficiency
2. Safety
3. Availability
4. Cost
5. Protection against STD
6. Age
7. Religious
8. Desire for Future Fertility
9. Side Effects
10. Co-existing medical conditions

3

what affect does efficacy have on contraception choices?

a: perfect use failure rate: Number of conceptions that occur when the individual uses the method consistently and correctly (perfectly) for one year.

B. Typical Use Failure Rate – The number of conceptions that occur when the individual routinely uses a method in an inconsistent or incorrect manner.

4

what what is Natural Family Planning

Calendar Method – Avoid having unprotected vaginal intercourse during the most fertile period of a woman’s cycle. (Fertile period begins 3 – 5 days prior to ovulation and ends the day after ovulation.)

5

how do you mark out natural family planning?

Method – Monitor menses for 6 – 12 months.

Earliest fertile day = Shortest Menstrual Cycle – 18 days

Latest fertile day = Longest Menstrual Cycle – 11 days

Short MC = 26 days - 18= 8
Longest= 31-11=20

this means you can not have sex from days 8-20

6

what are the failure rates of Natural Family Planning

Failure Rate –Perfect Use: 4%; Typical Use: 25%

7

what are the pros and cons of natural family planning?

. Pros – Does not require any prescription or device, inexpensive

Cons – 1 in 4 couples will get pregnant during the course of a year;
Must have REGULAR cycles;
Does not prevent against STD’s;
Some couples find the time and attention needed to be successful too bothersome;
can have an abnormal cycle which puts a couple at increased risk for pregnancy

8

what is the Withdrawal method?

AKA coitus interruptus – Male partner withdraws his penis completely outside the vagina before ejaculation

9

what is the proper method of the withdraw method?
a:
b:

a. Wipe off any preejaculatory penile discharge prior to inserting penis into vagina.
b. Use a coital position that will allow the male partner to withdraw easily.

10

what is the failure rates of the withdrawal method?

Failure Rate – Perfect Use: 4%; Typical Use: 27%

11

what are the pros and cons of the with drawl method?

pros: – Does not require any prescription or device, inexpensive

Cons – 1 in 4 couples will get pregnant during the course of a year; Requires the male partner to be aware when ejaculation will occur; Does not prevent against STD’s

12

what is the Symptothermic Method

Utilization of the changes in basal body temperatures and cervical mucous to detect ovulation

13

what is the proper method of using the Symptothermic Method

.Proper Method – Abstain from intercourse from the start of menses until a suitable period after ovulation occurs.

a. Basal Body temperature – A rise in BBT of 0.5 – 1 degreeF indicates ovulation: Then wait 2 – 3 days.

b. Cervical Mucous Changes – Thin, stretchy clear cervical mucous indicates ovulation: Then wait 4 – 5 days until the milky, opaque mucous returns

14

what is the failure rate of the Symptothermic method?

Perfect Use: 2%; Typical Use: 20%

15

what are the pros and cons of the Symptothermic method?

Pros - Does not require any prescription, only a thermometer; inexpensive

4. Cons - Does not prevent against STD’s;
Some couples find the time and attention needed to be successful too bothersome;
Patient needs to be aware of normal cervical mucous changes and feel comfortable examining them;
Having intercourse prior to ovulation will change the mucous and make it difficult to determine ovulation

16

Barrier Methods

Barrier Methods

17

what are Spermicides?

Almost all available contain nonoxynol-9 (N-9) which damages the sperm cell membrane.

18

what forms of spermicides are avb?

a. foam
b. gel
c. jelly
d. bioadhesive gel
e. suppositories
f. Vaginal Contraceptive film
g. Foaming tablets

19

what is the failure rate of spermicides

Perfect Use: 18%; Typical Use: 29%

20

what are the pros and cons of spermicides?

Pros – If pregnancy occurs it is not affected by it; easy to buy OTC

Cons – May cause vaginal burning sensation or irritation; N-9 may increase risk of HIV transmission and other STD’s (messes with the barrier of body wall)

21

Male Condom
what is it:

forms available:
a:
b:
c:
d:

Barriers worn over the penis to prevent semen and STD’s from coming into contact with a partner’s orifice.

1. Forms available:
a. latex
b. polyurethane
c. natural animal membrane
d. with or without spermicide

22

what is the failure rate of male condoms?

failure rate (without spermicide) –
Perfect Use: 2%; Typical Use: 15%

23

what are the Pros and cons of male condoms?

Pros – Decrease risk of STD’s; offered for free at some public health clinics; does not require office visit; allows men to take some responsibility

Cons – Must be used at every act of intercourse; can break, tear, or slip off; may cause an allergic reaction to latex; Over time may become expensive; may decrease penile sensation; Need to protect from heat; have a shelf life

24

Female Condom
what is it:

Female Condom – Female initiated barrier device for contraception and STD protection

Polyurethane sheath with a flexible ring at each end of the sheath. The condom is prelubricated with a silicone-based, nonspermicidal lubricant to facilitate insertion

25

what is the failure rate of female condoms?

Perfect Use: 5%; Typical Use: 21%

26

what are the pros and cons of female condoms?

3. Pros – Helps prevent against STD’s; non-latex; can be inserted up to 8 hours prior to intercourse; may use choice of lubricants; stays in place even after the man loses his erection

Cons – May be difficult for the female to insert; movement in the vagina during intercourse can be noisy; Can NOT be used with a male condom; outer ring may slip into the vagina during intercourse; rings may cause irritation

27

what is a Diaphragm ?

what is it MOA?

A latex rubber or silicone device designed to fit over the cervix and keep spermicide in close contact with the cervical mucous.

Mechanism of Action – Acts as a barrier to sperm and the spermicide acts as a vaginal microbicide to kill sperm.

28

what is a diaphragms failure rate?

Perfect Use: 6%; Typical Use – 16%

29

what are the pros and cons of diaphragms?

Pros – Is a reusable product; may place prior to intercourse

Cons – Requires an office visit to determine sizing;
Does not protect against STD’s;
Increased risk of UTI’s;
Rubber diaphragms need to be replaced every 2 years,
may cause allergy,
or absorb odors;
Requires resizing of the diaphragm if a patient has had a 10 pound weight change, been using it for a year, or had a pregnancy or an abortion;
Must stay in the vagina for at least 6 hours after ejaculation, but not more than 24 hours;
Requires patient to feel comfortable touching vulva and vagina

30

what is a Cervical Cap
what is its MOA?

Similar device to the diaphragm, but smaller size and less compression of the bladder decreases the incidence of UTI’s.

Mechanism of Action – Acts as a barrier to sperm and the spermicide acts as a vaginal microbicide to kill sperm.