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Flashcards in Wound Healing Deck (16)
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What are the three layers of skin?

Epidermis - dead
Dermis - Alive
Hypodermis - protection layer


What are the two phases of wound healing?

Haemostasis - clotting
Tissue repair


Describe the haemostasis phase of wound healing

1) blood coagulation cascade - exposure of blood to extra vascular tissue activates platelets and they form a plug
2) Platelet plug strengthened by fibrin
3) Fibrinous clot acts as a mix for migration of inflammatory and tissue repair cells into the wound


Describe the inflammation (tissue repair) phase of wound healing

1) 0-4 days
2) Early phase (haemostasis): vasoconstriction, vasodilation, coagulation.
3) Late phase: recruitment and activity of inflammatory cells.
4) A vascular and cellular response
5) Local capillaries become more permeable and inflammatory exudate infiltrates surrounding tissues


Describe the Reconstruction (tissue repair) phase of wound healing

1) 2-24 days
2) Angiogenesis - new blood vessel growth
3) Granulation - new skin (red)
4) Contraction - Wound edges contract together
5) Epitheliasation - Pale pink skin


Describe the maturation (tissue repair) phase of wound healing

1) 24-365 days
2) Scar tissue remodeled and strengthened by synthesis of collagen and elastin


What are examples of aberrant wound healing?

Hypertrophic scar


Describe an acute wound

1) a wound that heals by primary intention
2) a traumatic or surgical wound which heals by secondary intention
3) Proceeds through an orderly and timely reparation process that results in sustained restoration of anatomical integrity


Describe a chronic wound

1) Reparative process does not proceed through an orderly and timely process
2) complicated and delayed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact on THE PERSON, THEIR ENVIRONMENT & THE WOUND


What are the biochemical characteristics of a healing wound?

- Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine
- decreased matrix metaloproteinases
- increased growth factor
- cells capable of rapid response
- increased cell mitosis


What are the biochemical characteristics of a chronic wound?

- increased pro inflammatory cytokins
- increased matrix metaloproteinases
- varied levels of growth factors
- senescent cells
- decreased mitogenic activity


What are systemic signs of infection

- Elevated temperature
- Tachycardia
- Rigor
- Malaise
- Elevated leukocytes


Define critical colonisation

- Increased bacterial burden
- Bacterial Imbalance
- Covert infection
- Local injection
- Topical infection


What are two reactions to threats

1) Adaption - develop resistance
2) Self-protection - forms biofilm


Define Inherent bacterial resistance

Bacteria is naturally resistant to the antimicrobial agent


Define Acquired bacterial resistance

Bacteria develops resistance through bacterial genome, through vertical evolution (a mutation of the organism) or horizontal evolution (genetic transfer of resistant genes from one bacterium to another.