WWU Mana Psych 101: Chapter 2 (Scientific Method Flashcards

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1
Q

Empirical Challenges in Psychology

A

Complexity of the brain, variability in humans, reactivity (people act differently when observed)

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2
Q

To Avoid Demand Characteristics

A

Private Interactions/anonymous
Observing relatable behaviors not directly associated with behavior
Cover stories/unrelated questions to distract participant from true purpose of study
blind/double blind

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3
Q

Scientific Method

A

Formal way of asking questions and understanding things, changes industrial world, through emperical evidence

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4
Q

Empirical Evidence

A

Knowledge Obtained through Experience

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5
Q

Duchenne Smile

A

Real Smile, involves the eyes

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6
Q

7 steps of Scientific method

A
  1. Specify Problem
  2. Develop Operational Definitions
  3. Form Hypothesis
  4. Design study
  5. Conduct study
  6. Form a unifying theory
  7. Test a theory
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7
Q

Frequency Distribution

A

Arranged by number of times each measurement was made

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8
Q

Normal Distribution

A

Mathematically defined distribution in which frequency of measurements highest in middle and decreases in both directions (bell curse)

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9
Q

Descriptive Statistics

A

Central Tendency: mode median mean

Variablity: Range

SD: Average distance and mean of frequency distribution

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10
Q

Key

A

Test of Hypothesis, prediction of something

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11
Q

Data

A

Number that identify objective observations

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12
Q

Empirical Method

A

Formal set of rules for observing or measuring a phenomenon of interest

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13
Q

Theory

A

Hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon

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14
Q

Parsimony

A

Simplest theory is the best one

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15
Q

Hypothesis

A

Falsifiable prediction made by a theory

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16
Q

Observe

A

Use senses to learn about object or event properties

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17
Q

Measure

A

Define property and find a way to detect it

18
Q

Operational Definition

A

Description in concrete, measurable terms

19
Q

Instrument

A

Anything that can be used to detect condition of operational definition, referral (good one has validity, reliability, and power)

20
Q

Demand Characteristics

A

Aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as someone wants or expect

21
Q

Naturalistic Observation

A

Technique for gathering scientific data by unobtrusively observing people in natural environments

22
Q

Descriptive Studies

A

Lead people to begin to ask questions of relationships between factors they are describing, use correlatives statistics to quantify relationships (changes synchronized with other changes

Naturalistic observations
Case Studies
Surveys

23
Q

Positive Correlations

A

x increases, so does y

24
Q

Negative correlation

A

x increases, y decreases

25
Q

Zero Correlation

A

No relationship between x and y

26
Q

Third Variable Problem

A

Many different variable might impact relationships between two variables of study

27
Q

Experiments

A

Eliminate third variable problem with random assignment and manipulation
Measure dependent variable

28
Q

Random Assignment

A

randomly separated into groups that undergo different levels of an independent variable

29
Q

Quasi Experiments

A

Like experiment but random assignment is not possible

WEIRD

30
Q

Good Research Designs

A

Reduce Bias in measuring behavior
Control Participant expectancy
Maintain High Ethical Standards

31
Q

Science Ethics

A

Minimalize discomfort/pain

Supervision fro trained experts

32
Q

Natural Correlation

A

Correlations observed in the world around us

33
Q

Manipulation

A

Changing variable to determines causal power (independent variable)

Creates experimental and control group

34
Q

Third Varibale Correlation

A

Two variable correlation due to an unseen relationship to a third variable

35
Q

Matched Samples technique

A

Participants in 2 groups are identical in terms of a third variable

36
Q

Experimentation

A

Establishing causal relationships between variables

37
Q

Interal Validity

A

Attribute of experiment allows it to establish causal relationships

38
Q

External Validity

A

Attribute of experiment in which variable have been defined in normal, typical, realistic ways

39
Q

Sample

A

Partial collection of people drawn from population

40
Q

Case study

A

Procedure for gathering scientific info by studying single individual

41
Q

Random Sampling

A

technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of population has equal chance of being in sample (representative)