Yet more cardio class stuff lol Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Yet more cardio class stuff lol Deck (60):
1

The QT interval is too long if it is more than

0.42 seconds

2

preload

initial stretching of cardiomyocytes before contraction

3

CO =

HR x SV

4

after load

load against which the muscles tries to contract

5

increase in TPR then an increase in aortic pressure leads to ventricle having to work harder to open aortic valve so less energy so SV

decreases

6

Vessels/ Veins (capacitance vessels) effect

preload

7

resistance vessels (arterioles) effect

afterload

8

the fast depolarising stage of cardiac AP is due to

an increase in Na+

9

resting membrane potential is set buy

leaky potassium channels

10

depolarisation is due to the opening of

K+ leaky channels

11

plateau phase is due to

calcium

12

contractility is the effect of the sympathetic system

releasing noradrenaline which increase calcium available for EC coupling

13

Beta 1 adrenoreceptors

increase HR and increase Contractility

14

Valsalva manœuvre will

increase vagal tone


(parasympathetic)

15

MAP +

CO x TPR

16

Blood clot is

fibrin clot + platelet plug

17

prostacylcins and NO will

reduce platelet aggregation

18

heparin

inactivates thrombin

19

fibrinogen to fibrin transformed by

thrombin

20

Noradrenaline acting on alpha 1 receptors will

reduce flow

increase TPR

21

Angiotensin II released in response to

low blood volume

22

Angiotensin II leads to

arteriolar constriction

23

ADH is released in response to

low blood volume

24

ADH release causes

arteriolar constriction

so increased TPR

25

atrial niuretic peptide is released in response to

high blood volume

26

atrial niuretic peptide release causes

arteriolar dilation

27

an increase in hydrostatic pressure (standing up) will...

reduce

SV

EDV

VR

Preload

MAP

28

Reflex response ill...

increase sympathetic tone

decrease vagal tone

29

an increase in sympathetic tone will

increase HR, CO, SV, contractility

30

Long term BP is controlled by what 4 things?

aldosterone

angiotensin II

atrial niuretic peptide

vasopressin (ADH)

31

an increase in thoracic pressure will decrease

VR

EDV

SV

CO

MAP

32

Baroreceptors are

sensors located on blood vessels that detect changes in BP

33

Aortic arch 1

nothing

maxillary artery

34

aortic arch 2

nothin

maxillary artery

35

aortic arch 3

internal carotid

36

aortic arch 4

aortic arch

37

aortic arch 5

nothing

38

aortic arch 6

pulmonary arteries

39

angiotensin II stimulates the release of ...... and .......

aldosterone


ADH

40

ADH is produced in response to

low blood volume

41

ADH is produced in the

hypothalamus

42

ANP is released in response to .... and .....

increase blood volume

increased distension of atrium

43

ANP inhibits....

renin release

44

Anticoagulants 2 main drugs

heparin

warfarin

45

low molecular weight heparin is often used in

venous thromboembolism

46

Beta blockers work by

antagonising the sympathetic system

47

beat blockers example

propranolol

48

beta blockers are often used in

angina

hypertension

post MI

49

be careful when using beta blockers in

asthma

heart block

50

ACE inhibitors are often used in

hypertension

heart failure

post MI

51

Loop diuretics are used to treat

heart failure

52

Thiazide like diuretics are used to treat

IHD

hypertension

heart failure

53

Vasodilators example

nitrates

54

vasodilators (such as nitrates) are used in

IHD

hypertension

heart failure

55

Statins work by reducing

LDL cholesterol

56

Statins example

simvastatin

57

Sodium channel blockers are also known as

anti-arrhythmias

58

anti platelets are given following an

MI or stroke

59

anti platelets examples (2)

aspirin

clopidogrel

60

Calcium antagonists treat

hypertension and angina