Atha Yoga Anushasanam
1.1 Now, the exposition of Yoga. Be alert, stay focused, know where you are right now, remove any doubts you have about the validity of yoga, for now we begin.
Sutra 1.1 Sanskrit
Atha Yoga Anushasanam
What are the Five States of Mind (categories of mental modifications / vrittis)? Which are desirable?
- Kshipta - disturbed
- Mudha - dull
- Vikshipta - distracted
- Ekagra - one-pointed
- Nirodhah - mastered
4 and 5 are desirable.
Describe the Kshipta mind.
Disturbed, restless, troubled, wandering, worried, troubled, or chaotic. Not just distracted but a more intense, negative, emotional involvement.
Describe the Mudha mind.
Dull, heavy, forgetful, sloth-like, lazy, lethargic. The active disturbances of Kshipta have settled down, and the mind is more easily trained.
Describe the Vikshipta mind.
Distracted, occasionally steady or focused. Can concentrate but will wander or be pulled off course by outside influence or by a rising memory.
Describe the Ekagra mind.
One-pointed, focused, concentrated (Sutra 1.32). Once here, the real practice of Yoga meditation can begin. One can focus on tasks in daily life while being mindful of the mental process. Other internal or external activities are not a distraction. In the moment, very present, undisturbed. Able to attend to people, thoughts and emotions at will.
Describe the Nirodhah mind.
Highly mastered, controlled, regulated, restrained (not through suppressing thoughts and emotions). It comes from a natural process when the one-pointed mind becomes more still as meditation deepens, moving attention inward beyond the stream of inner impressions. It is both the goal and definition of Yoga.
Sutra 1.2 Sanskrit
Yogas chitta vritti nirodha.
Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodhah
1.2 The restraint of the modifications of the mind-stuff is Yoga.
The chitta is composed of what three functions?
Manas, buddhi, and ahamkara.
What factors contribute to identification with these Vrittis?
Ignorance (unaware or forgetting that our True Self is the Purusha); Egoism (belief that we are the body-mind); Vritti activity (habitual behavior of the mind to form or find relationships. the mind deduces “reality” from these patterns of thought)
What 5 arenas are cultivated in Raja Yoga?
Body (asanas and breath control), intellect (study and self-analysis), heart (prayer and worship), social (dedicated service to others), and personal integrity (cultivation of moral and ethical virtues)
Sutra 1.3 Sanskrit
Tada Drashtuh Svarupe Avasthanam
Tada Drashtuh Svarupe Avasthanam
1.3 Then the Seer abides in Its own True Nature. Abides implies that the Seer will no longer be a visitor, coming with periods of mental stillness and leaving when the mind becomes restless.
Purusha; pure consciousness; unchanging, unconditioned awareness.
Sutra 1.4 Sanskrit
Vritti Sarupyam Itaratra
Vritti Sarupyam Itaratra
1.4 At other times (the Self appears to) assume the forms of the mentalmodifications (ego identifying with mental activity).
Sutra 1.5 Sanskrit
Vrittayah pancatayah klishta aklishta
Vrittayah Pancatayah Klishta Aklishta
1.5 These are the 5 kinds of mental modifications (vrittis), which are either painful (not beneficial) or painless (beneficial).
Sutra 1.6 Sanskrit
Pramana viparyaya vikapla nidra smritayah.
Pramana Viparyaya Vikapla Nidra Smritayah
1.6 These 5 vrittis are Right knowledge, misperception, conceptualization/imagination, sleep, and memory. Whether right or wrong, they could come under our mastery.
Sutra 1.7 Sanskrit
Pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani
Pratyaksha Anumana Agamah Pramanani
- 7 Two interpretations: 1. there are 3 reliable means for attaining information regarding life and the Self. 2. A piece of information is considered trustworthy after passing through this 3-pronged process: 3 sources of right knowledge:
- Direct perception.
- Authoritative testimony.
Sutra 1.8 Sanskrit
Viparyayah mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham
Viparyayah Mithya Jnanam Atad Rupa Pratistham
1.8 Misperception occurs when knowledge of something is not based on its true form.
Sutra 1.9 Sanskrit
shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyah vikalpah
Shabda Jnana Anupati Vastu Shunyah Vikalpah
1.9 Knowledge that is based on language alone, independent of any external object, is conceptualization.
Abhava Pratyaya Alambana Vritti Nidra
1.10 The mental modification which depends on the thought of nothingness is sleep.
Sutra 1.11 English
1.11 Memory is the recollection of experienced objects.
Sutra 1.12 English
1.12 These mental modifications are restrained by practice and nonattachment.
Sutra 1.13 English
1.13 Of these two, effort toward steadiness is practice.
Sutra 1.14 English
1.14 Practice becomes firmly grounded when well attended to for a long time, without break, and with enthusiasm.
Sutra 1.15 English
1.15 Nonattachment is the manifestation of self-mastery in one who is free from craving for objects seen or heard about.
Sutra 1.16 English
1.16 When there is nonthirst for even the gunas (constituents of Nature) due to realization of the Purusha, that is supreme nonattachment.
Sutra 1.17 English
1.17 Cognitive (samprajnata) samadhi (is associated with forms and) is attended by examination, insight, joy, and pure I-am-ness.
Sutra 1.18 English
1.18 Noncognitive (asamprajnata) samadhi occurs with the cessation of all conscious thought; only the subconscious impressions remain.
Sutra 1.19 English
1.19 Yogis who have not attained asamprajnata samadhi remain attached to Prakriti at the time of death due to the continued existence of thoughts of becoming.
Sutra 1.20 English
1.20 To the others, asamprajnata samadhi is preceded by faith, strength, mindfulness, (cognitive) samadhi, and discriminative insight.
Sutra 1.21 English
1.21 To the keen and intent practitioner this samadhi comes very quickly.
Sutra 1.22 English
1.22 The time necessary for success also depends on whether the practice is mild, moderate, or intense.
Sutra 1.23 English
1.23 Or samadhi is attained by devotion with total dedication to God (Ishwara).
Sutra 1.24 English
1.24 Ishwara is the supreme Purusha, unaffected by any afflictions, actions, fruits of actions, or any inner impressions of desires.
Sutra 1.25 English
1.25 In Ishwara is the complete manifestation of the seed of omniscience.
Sutra 1.26 English
1.26 Unconditioned by time, Ishwara is the teacher of even the most ancient teachers.
Sutra 1.27 English
1.27 The expression of Ishwara is the mystic sound OM.
Sutra 1.28 English
1.28 To repeat it in a meditative way reveals its meaning.
Sutra 1.29 English
1.29 From this practice, the awareness turns inward, and the distracting obstacles vanish.
Sutra 1.30 English
1.30 Disease, dullness, doubt, carelessness, laziness, sensuality, false perception, failure to reach firm ground, and slipping from the ground gained–these distractions of the mind-stuff are the obstacles.
Sutra 1.10 Sanskrit
Abhava pratyaya alambana vritti nidra
Sutra 1.11 Sanskrit
anubhuta vishaya asampramoshah smritih
Sutra 1.12 Sanskrit
abhyasa vairagyabhyam tat nirodhah
Sutra 1.13 Sanskrit
tatra sthitau yatnah abhyasa
Sutra 1.14 Sanskrit
sah tu dirgha kala nairantaira satkara asevitah dridha bhumih
Sutra 1.15 Sanskrit
drista anushravika vishaya vitrishnasya vashikara sanjna vairagyam
Sutra 1.16 Sanskrit
tat param purusha khyateh guna vaitrshnyam
Sutra 1.17 Sanskrit
vitarka vichara ananda asmita rupa anugamat samprajnatah
Sutra 1.18 Sanskrit
virama pratyaya abhyasa purvah samskara shesha anyah
Sutra 1.19 Sanskrit
bhava pratyayah videha prakriti layanam
Sutra 1.20 Sanskrit
shraddha virya smriti samadhi prajna purvakah itaresham
Sutra 1.21 Sanskrit
tivra samvega asannah
Sutra 1.22 Sanskrit
mridu madhya adhimatra tatah api visheshah
Sutra 1.24 Sanskrit
klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamristah purusha-vishesha ishvara
Sutra 1.25 Sanskrit
tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam
Sutra 1.26 Sanskrit
purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat
Sutra 1.27 Sanskrit
tasya vachakah pranavah
Sutra 1.28 Sanskrit
tat japah tat artha bhavanam
Sutra 1.29 Sanskrit
tatah pratyak chetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavash cha
Sutra 1.23 Sanskrit
ishvara pranidhana va