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Atha Yoga Anushasanam

1.1 Now, the exposition of Yoga. Be alert, stay focused, know where you are right now, remove any doubts you have about the validity of yoga, for now we begin.


Sutra 1.1 Sanskrit

Atha Yoga Anushasanam


What are the Five States of Mind (categories of mental modifications / vrittis)? Which are desirable?

1. Kshipta - disturbed
2. Mudha - dull
3. Vikshipta - distracted
4. Ekagra - one-pointed
5. Nirodhah - mastered
4 and 5 are desirable.


Describe the Kshipta mind.

Disturbed, restless, troubled, wandering, worried, troubled, or chaotic. Not just distracted but a more intense, negative, emotional involvement.


Describe the Mudha mind.

Dull, heavy, forgetful, sloth-like, lazy, lethargic. The active disturbances of Kshipta have settled down, and the mind is more easily trained.


Describe the Vikshipta mind.

Distracted, occasionally steady or focused. Can concentrate but will wander or be pulled off course by outside influence or by a rising memory.


Describe the Ekagra mind.

One-pointed, focused, concentrated (Sutra 1.32). Once here, the real practice of Yoga meditation can begin. One can focus on tasks in daily life while being mindful of the mental process. Other internal or external activities are not a distraction. In the moment, very present, undisturbed. Able to attend to people, thoughts and emotions at will.


Describe the Nirodhah mind.

Highly mastered, controlled, regulated, restrained (not through suppressing thoughts and emotions). It comes from a natural process when the one-pointed mind becomes more still as meditation deepens, moving attention inward beyond the stream of inner impressions. It is both the goal and definition of Yoga.


Sutra 1.2 Sanskrit

Yogas chitta vritti nirodha.


Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodhah

1.2 The restraint of the modifications of the mind-stuff is Yoga.


The chitta is composed of what three functions?

Manas, buddhi, and ahamkara.


What factors contribute to identification with these Vrittis?

Ignorance (unaware or forgetting that our True Self is the Purusha); Egoism (belief that we are the body-mind); Vritti activity (habitual behavior of the mind to form or find relationships. the mind deduces "reality" from these patterns of thought)


What 5 arenas are cultivated in Raja Yoga?

Body (asanas and breath control), intellect (study and self-analysis), heart (prayer and worship), social (dedicated service to others), and personal integrity (cultivation of moral and ethical virtues)


Sutra 1.3 Sanskrit

Tada Drashtuh Svarupe Avasthanam


Tada Drashtuh Svarupe Avasthanam

1.3 Then the Seer abides in Its own True Nature. Abides implies that the Seer will no longer be a visitor, coming with periods of mental stillness and leaving when the mind becomes restless.


Define Seer.

Purusha; pure consciousness; unchanging, unconditioned awareness.


Sutra 1.4 Sanskrit

Vritti Sarupyam Itaratra


Vritti Sarupyam Itaratra

1.4 At other times (the Self appears to) assume the forms of the mentalmodifications (ego identifying with mental activity).


Sutra 1.5 Sanskrit

Vrittayah pancatayah klishta aklishta


Vrittayah Pancatayah Klishta Aklishta

1.5 These are the 5 kinds of mental modifications (vrittis), which are either painful (not beneficial) or painless (beneficial).


Sutra 1.6 Sanskrit

Pramana viparyaya vikapla nidra smritayah.


Pramana Viparyaya Vikapla Nidra Smritayah

1.6 These 5 vrittis are Right knowledge, misperception, conceptualization/imagination, sleep, and memory. Whether right or wrong, they could come under our mastery.


Sutra 1.7 Sanskrit

Pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani


Pratyaksha Anumana Agamah Pramanani

1.7 Two interpretations: 1. there are 3 reliable means for attaining information regarding life and the Self. 2. A piece of information is considered trustworthy after passing through this 3-pronged process: 3 sources of right knowledge:
1. Direct perception.
2. Inference.
3. Authoritative testimony.


Sutra 1.8 Sanskrit

Viparyayah mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham


Viparyayah Mithya Jnanam Atad Rupa Pratistham

1.8 Misperception occurs when knowledge of something is not based on its true form.


Sutra 1.9 Sanskrit

shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyah vikalpah


Shabda Jnana Anupati Vastu Shunyah Vikalpah

1.9 Knowledge that is based on language alone, independent of any external object, is conceptualization.


Abhava Pratyaya Alambana Vritti Nidra

1.10 The mental modification which depends on the thought of nothingness is sleep.


Sutra 1.11 English

1.11 Memory is the recollection of experienced objects.