Yr 10 Biology Flashcards Preview

Science > Yr 10 Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Yr 10 Biology Deck (52):
1

Define organelle

Small part of the cell with a particular job to do

2

Define cell

Smallest part of a living organism

3

Define tissue

A group of specialized cells that carry out a particular job

4

Define organ

A group of different tissues that work together to carry out a job in the system

5

Define organ system

A group of different organs which work together to carry out a specific life process in an organism

6

Define respiration

Creating useful energy from food

7

Define antagonist muscles

Muscles that work in pairs to control the movement of joints

8

Define joints

Where bone come together and they allow for controlled movement

9

Define cartilege

Flexible tissue that covers the end of bones at a joint

10

Define ligament

Fibers that hold bone to bone at the end of the joint

11

Define tendon

fibers that attach muscle to bone

12

Define synovial joint

a common joint that is surrounded by a special membrane that lubricates the joint

13

Define breathing

the process of taking in (inhalation) and out of the lungs (exhalation)

14

Define Cellular respiration

Process in a cell that converts glucose and oxygen to create energy (CO2 is also given off)

15

Define trachea

The ribbed tube that carries air from the throat to the lungs

16

Define bronchiole

The small airways that passes through to the small alveoli

17

Define alveoli

The small air sacs where gas exchange occurs in the lungs

18

Define capillary

Give oxygenated blood from arteries to the tissues and deoxygenated blood from the tissues back into the veins. Essentially a bridge between the arteries and the veins

19

Define red blood cell

A cell in the blood that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body

20

Define white blood cell

Cells found in the blood that help defend it from infection such as bacteria and viruses

21

Example human organelle.

Mitochondria - respiration

22

Example human cell.

Red blood cell - carries oxygen

23

Example human tissue.

Muscle

24

Example human organ

Heart - pump oxygen

25

Example human organ system

Digestive system - absorb nutrients

26

Function and specialisation of red blood cell

Contain hemoglobin that carries oxygen around. The concave shape increases surface area for more hemoglobin. No nucleus meaning more room for hemoglobin.

27

Function and specialisation of nerve cell

Transmit electrical nerve impulses and so carry information from one part of the body to another. Dendrites extend from the cell body to make connections with other neurones. Have a long axon (nerve fibre) to carry the impulse to the target organ.

28

Function and specialisation of sperm cell

Fertilises a female egg. The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.

29

Function and specialization of leaf cell

Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.

30

Function of skeleton

support, movement, protection, shape, production of blood cells

31

Function of muscles

movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production

32

Red blood diagram

.

33

Epithelial Diagram

.

34

Nerve Diagram

.

35

Sperm Diagram

.

36

Leaf Diagram

.

37

Skeleton Diagram

.

38

Muscle Diagram

.

39

Synovial Joint diagram

.

40

What is the role of blood in the respiratory system.

To absorb the oxygen in the hemoglobins and then distribute it throughout the body.

41

What is blood made up of?

Red and white blood cells, platelets, plasma.

42

What are platelets and blood plasma?

Platelets are blood clots to stop bleeding. Plasma carries nutrients and hormones as well as keeping the blood suspended.

43

What is the word equation for respiration

Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + ATP

44

Effect of exercise on heart rate

Inhaling quicker to get more oxygen and therefore ehaling more. Greater volume of blood passing through alveoli, more red blood cells become oxygenated as cells need a greater rater rate of respiratorion (arobic), more O2 needs to be dissociated from the red blood cells.

45

Heart diagram

.

46

Lung diagram

.

47

Special features artery

Thick muscle wall because of pressure

48

Special features capilaries

One cell thick for transfer

49

Special features veins

Large lumen for travel and valves for no back flow

50

What is the lungs role in excretion?

Remove carbon dioxide from the body through the process of exhaling

51

What is the adaptations of the alveloi

Folded for greater surface area. One cell thick walls. Surrounded by capillaries to ensure blood flow. Ventilated to remove carbon dioxide.

52

What are the main types of tissues?

muscle, epithelial, connective and nervous