Flashcards in Yr 10 Biology Deck (52):
Small part of the cell with a particular job to do
Smallest part of a living organism
A group of specialized cells that carry out a particular job
A group of different tissues that work together to carry out a job in the system
Define organ system
A group of different organs which work together to carry out a specific life process in an organism
Creating useful energy from food
Define antagonist muscles
Muscles that work in pairs to control the movement of joints
Where bone come together and they allow for controlled movement
Flexible tissue that covers the end of bones at a joint
Fibers that hold bone to bone at the end of the joint
fibers that attach muscle to bone
Define synovial joint
a common joint that is surrounded by a special membrane that lubricates the joint
the process of taking in (inhalation) and out of the lungs (exhalation)
Define Cellular respiration
Process in a cell that converts glucose and oxygen to create energy (CO2 is also given off)
The ribbed tube that carries air from the throat to the lungs
The small airways that passes through to the small alveoli
The small air sacs where gas exchange occurs in the lungs
Give oxygenated blood from arteries to the tissues and deoxygenated blood from the tissues back into the veins. Essentially a bridge between the arteries and the veins
Define red blood cell
A cell in the blood that carries oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body
Define white blood cell
Cells found in the blood that help defend it from infection such as bacteria and viruses
Example human organelle.
Mitochondria - respiration
Example human cell.
Red blood cell - carries oxygen
Example human tissue.
Example human organ
Heart - pump oxygen
Example human organ system
Digestive system - absorb nutrients
Function and specialisation of red blood cell
Contain hemoglobin that carries oxygen around. The concave shape increases surface area for more hemoglobin. No nucleus meaning more room for hemoglobin.
Function and specialisation of nerve cell
Transmit electrical nerve impulses and so carry information from one part of the body to another. Dendrites extend from the cell body to make connections with other neurones. Have a long axon (nerve fibre) to carry the impulse to the target organ.
Function and specialisation of sperm cell
Fertilises a female egg. The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Function and specialization of leaf cell
Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
Function of skeleton
support, movement, protection, shape, production of blood cells
Function of muscles
movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production
Red blood diagram
Synovial Joint diagram
What is the role of blood in the respiratory system.
To absorb the oxygen in the hemoglobins and then distribute it throughout the body.
What is blood made up of?
Red and white blood cells, platelets, plasma.
What are platelets and blood plasma?
Platelets are blood clots to stop bleeding. Plasma carries nutrients and hormones as well as keeping the blood suspended.
What is the word equation for respiration
Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + ATP
Effect of exercise on heart rate
Inhaling quicker to get more oxygen and therefore ehaling more. Greater volume of blood passing through alveoli, more red blood cells become oxygenated as cells need a greater rater rate of respiratorion (arobic), more O2 needs to be dissociated from the red blood cells.
Special features artery
Thick muscle wall because of pressure
Special features capilaries
One cell thick for transfer
Special features veins
Large lumen for travel and valves for no back flow
What is the lungs role in excretion?
Remove carbon dioxide from the body through the process of exhaling
What is the adaptations of the alveloi
Folded for greater surface area. One cell thick walls. Surrounded by capillaries to ensure blood flow. Ventilated to remove carbon dioxide.