Intro - What is cutlass?
Crosses, units, title, labels, axis, size, smooth/straight line
Intro - what variables are there?
Independent, dependent, control
Intro - What is the independent variable?
Variable that is manipulated to determine the value of a dependent variable.
Intro - What is the dependent variable?
The dependent variable is what is being measured in an experiment.
Intro - What is the control variable?
Variable that is not changed throughout the experiment to keep the experiment fair.
Intro - How to name a graph?
The relationship between ... and/compared to ...
Bio - Define Organism
An object that carries out all the life functions
Bio - Define non-living
An object which had never been alive
Bio - What is MRS C GREN
Movement, respiration, sensitivity, cells, growth, reproduction, excretion, nutrition.
Bio - Define movement
Moving the whole or part of the organisms
Bio - Define respiration
Creating useful energy from food.
Bio - Define sensitivity
Able to detect and respond to environmental changes
Bio - Define cells
The building blocks of life
Bio - Define growth
Increase size or change in life stage
Bio - Define reproduction
Able to produce offspring
Bio - Define excretion
Disposal of wastes from the body
Bio - What are chlorophyll?
Chemical in chloroplasts responsible for absorption of sunlight, appears as a green pigment in leaves.
Bio - What is an organelle?
Parts of a cell that have specific functions.
Bio - What is starch?
The storage of sugar in a plant.
Bio - what are the capillaries?
Small blood vessels that deliver nutrients, and remove waste from individual cells
Bio - Lable a plant cross section
Bio - What is the purpose of a wide blade?
Captures maximum sunlight.
Bio - What is the purpose of a thin lead?
Allows maximum light penetration.
Bio - What is the purpose of a vein network?
Supports leaf and supplies water from roots and moved sugar to the rest of the plant.
Bio - Why is the leaf green?
Chlorophyll is present to trap light energy .
Bio - What is the purpose of pores in the leaf?
Allows CO2 to move in and out of the leaf
Bio - What is the purpose of a cuticle (waxy surface)?
Prevent excessive water loss from epidermis by covering up any holes between the cells and keeps all the water inside.
Intro - What is the scientific order?
Aim, Hypothesis, experiment, observation, analysis, conclusion
Bio - What is the purpose of the Epidermis layer cells?
Protect/support the leaf and also makes the waxy surface
Bio - What is the purpose of the palisade layer cells?
Contains lots of chlorophyll for trapping sunlight energy
Bio - What is the purpose of the spongy layer cells?
Contains fewer chloroplasts than the palisade layer because the light is weaker. Also has air space to allow gas flow.
Bio - What is the purpose of the guard cells?
Located in the epidermis. control the size of the stomata regulated by water content.
Bio - How many guards cells are there?
2 guard cells per stomata.
Bio - What are the stomata?
A hole to allow gasses to enter the leaf, controlled by the guard cell.
Bio - What are the two parts of the vein?
Xylem and phloem.
Bio - Where are the chloroplasts located?
In the Palisade mesophyll layer.
Bio - Why are the stomata on the bottom of the leaf?
Top of the leaf is adapted to take in light and the bottom is used to take in CO2. This efficiently uses the area of a leaf.
Bio - What is the purpose of having small leaves?
Small leaves have a reduced surface area to enable plants to conserve water.
Bio - What is the word equation for respiration?
glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
Bio - Define photosynthesis.
Plants using sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water.
Bio - What is the word equation of photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water =(light energy + chlorophyll)= glucose + oxygen
Bio - label the digestive system
Bio - Define Digestion.
Food is broken down by a physical force and enzymes.
Bio - Define ingestion
Food is taken into the mouth.
Bio - Define absorption
Small particles pass into the blood capillaries.
Bio - Define egestion.
Undigested food which is not used leaves the anus as feces.
Bio - What types of digestion are there?
Mechanical is when the shape is physically changed so it can fit through the small diameter of the digestive system
Chemical is when the bonds are broken and this allows useful chemicals to be released and dissolved in the blood
Bio - Define food chain
Diagram to show the flow of chemical potential energy between organisms in a habitat.
Bio - Define trophic level.
Level of organization in a food chain or web. eg the producer is trophic level 1
Bio - What is the order of a food chain?
Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer.
Bio - How much energy is transferred between trophic levels?
10% the rest is lost in reproduction, growth, defecation and nonpreditorial deaths
Bio - Define food web.
Shows all the food chains in an ecosystem.
Bio - Why do food chains rarely go over 5 trophic levels?
Food chains rarely go over 5 trophic levels because only 10% of the energy is transferred, making it difficult for organisms higher up to get enough energy.
Bio - Define adaptation
Feature of an organism that enables it to survive in a particular habitat.
Bio - What types of adaptations are there?
Behavioral (behavior), structural (physical) and physiological (internal mechanisms)
Bio - Name three Kiwi adaptations.
Whiskers at the base of their beak to aid in nocturnal navigation. Nostrils at the end of their beak assist them in finding food. Being nocturnal to avoid predators during the day.
Bio - Describe cell membrane and explain its function.
A thin envelope around the cell that controls the entry and exit of substances into the cell.
Bio - Describe nucleus and explain its function.
A dark dense sphere that controls the activities of the cell.
Bio - Describe cytoplasm and explain its function.
A jelly-like substance that fills the cell where many important reactions take place
Bio - Describe cell wall and explain its function.
Made of strong fibers that make a rigid wall and supports the plants
Bio - Describe chloroplast and explain its function.
A structure which contains chlorophyll and makes food for plant photosynthesis.
Bio - Describe mitochondria and explain its function.
The organelle where respiration occurs, it carries out the process of respiration.
Bio - Describe vacuole and explain its function.
A bag of liquids that stores substances.
Chem - Define element
Elements are made form only one type of atom, therefore they are pure.
Chem - Define compound
A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically joined together.
Chem - Define mixtures
Mixtures are impure and are made from elements, compounds or elements and compounds, mixtures can be separated easily.
Chem - Define atomic number and mass number
The atomic number is the number of protons in the atom. This is also equal to the number of electrons. The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.
Chem - Define atom and sub atomic particle.
The atom is the smallest particle of the element. Sub atomic particles are what makes up the atom, so protons, neutrons and electrons.
Chem - Define concentration and dilute solution.
A concentration solution has lots of solute dissolved in it. A dilute solution has a little solute dissolved in it.
Chem - Define pure and impure substances.
Pure substances are made of only one type of atom. For example oxygen. Impure substances are made from two or more particles not chemically joined. For example sand.
Chem - Define insoluble and soluble and give an example.
Insoluble does not dissolve and soluble does dissolve. For example, sand is insoluble and sugar is soluble.
Chem - Define solute and solvent and give an example.
Solute is a SUBSTANCE that dissolves and a solvent is the LIQUID that does dissolve. For example, coffee powder is a solute and milk is a solvent.
Chem - Define periodic table
The periodic table is a table that organizes the elements based on their atomic number and properties.
Chem - Define solution
And a solution is a mixture of solvents and solutes.
Chem - How many elements are there?
92 elements exist naturally, 24 have been made in labs.
Chem - State the first 20 elements plus the extra ones.
H Hydrogen, He Helium, Li Lithium, Be Beryllium, B Boron, C Carbon, N Nitrogen, O Oxygen, F Fluorine, Ne Neon, Na Sodium, Mg Magnesium, Al Aluminum, Si Silicon, P Phosphorus, S Sulfur, Cl Chlorine, Ar Argon, K Potassium, Ca Calcium, Au Gold, Ag Silver, Cu Copper, Hg Mercury and Fe Iron.
Chem - Why are atoms neutral overall?
Atoms are neutral overall because there is the same number as protons(positive) and electrons(negative).
Chem - What is the shell config on an atom?
Chem - How do groups and periods organize elements?
Groups go up and down and have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell. Periods go left to right and has the same number of electron shells. Elements in the same group or period react similar.
Chem - What is the name of the outermost shell?
Chem - What is the name of the outermost electrons?
Chem - Explain dilute, concentration and saturation.
A dilute contains a small amount of solute in a solvent. A concentration contains a large amount of solute in a solvent. A saturated solution is when no more solute will dissolve in a solvent.
Chem - What is an isotope?
An atom with a different number of neutrons from its element.
Chem - explain the filtration technique
Filtration uses physical properties to separate, it separates solute from solvent based on particle size.
Chem - explain the decanting technique
Decanting uses time to separate, particles sink to the bottom and then the liquid is poured out, this isn't precise because the particles can poured out as well.
Chem - explain the distillation technique
Distillation uses boiling points to separate, the mixture is heated to the lowest boiling point so one substance can evaporate.
Chem - explain the chromatography technique
Chromatography uses amounts of substances to separate, there are two methods, paper and gas.
Chem - explain the evaporation technique
Evaporation uses boiling points to separate because the solvent has a lower boiling point, the solvent is left behind.
Chem - Explain the magnetic separation technique
Magnetic separation uses magnetic properties to separate, it extracts certain materials based on their magnetic power.
Chem - What is a molecule
A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together.
Chem - How do you calculate density and what unit?
Density = mass/volume
Unit = gram/millilitres(g/mL)
Chem - What are the states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas
Chem - Define volume
The space a substance occupies, measured in cm^3 or Litres
Chem - What is property?
How a substance behaves, eg its flow
Chem - What is compression?
Particles being squashed into a smaller amount of space.
Chem - What is expansion?
Particles moving apart due to an increase in heat and kinetic energy taking up a larger volume.
Chem - What is contraction?
Particles moving closer due to a decrease in heat and kinetic energy taking up a smaller volume.
Chem - Define density.
The number of particles in a certain area determines the density. For example, more particles in a certain area would result in a higher density.
Chem - What is melting?
Solid to liquid
Chem - What is evaporation?
Liquid to gas
Chem - What is condensation?
Gas to liquid
Chem - What is solidify/freezing?
Liquid to solid
Chem - What is sublimation?
Solid to gas
Chem - What is reverse sublimation?
gas to solid
Phys - Why is energy needed?
Energy is needed to make things move or change.
Phys - Can objects have many types of energy?
Yes, eg: The sun.
Phys - What are the main forms of energy?
Potential: gravitational, elastic, nuclear, magnetic & chemical.
Active: kinetic, heat, sound, light and electrical.
Phys - What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred and transformed.
Phys - What unit is energy measured in?
Kilo joules(kJ) * 1000 J.
Phys - What is efficiency?
Efficiency is how much of the total energy is useful.
Phys - Who do you calculate efficiency?
Output energy / input energy * 100
Phys - What is Ep mean?
Ep is calculating gravitational potential energy.
Phys - How do you calculate EP?
Ep = mgh. M = mass, G = gravity(10) and H = Height.
Phys - What are the three types of heat transfer?
Conduction(direct contact), convention(liquids and gasses) and radiation(electromagnetic waves).
Phys - Lable an energy transfer diagram
Phys - Lable a longitudinal and transverse wave.
Phys - Define sound and light.
Sound is a type of energy that travels as a longitudinal wave.
Light is a type of energy that travels as a transverse wave.
Phys - Define transverse and longitude waves.
Transverse waves are waves that travel up and down at 90 degrees to the direction of travel(light).
Longitude waves are waves that vibrate parallel to the direction to the movement(sound).
Phys - What is the law of reflection?
The incident ray and the reflected ray lie on the same plane. The normal is perpendicular to the mirror. The incident ray is equal to the reflected ray.
Phys - What are some everyday uses of concave mirrors and convex mirrors?
Concave mirrors are used on the headlights of cars. Convex mirrors are used on the mirrors of a cars.
Phys - Define wave and color spectrum.
A wave is a way to transfer energy without transferring matter. The color spectrum is all the colors that make white light.
Phys - Explain how sound travels through matter.
Sound waves move by vibrating the molecules in the matter
Phys - Explain how light travels.
Light waves don't need any matter or material to carry its energy
Phys - What type of lens do nearsighted eyes need?
Phys - What type of lens do farsighted eyes need?
Phys - Do light rays bend towards or away from the normal in denser/less denser objects?
When light rays enter a denser object the light rays bend towards the normal. When light rays enter a less denser object the light rays bend away from the normal.
Phys - Discuss how the ear works.
Sound waves travel by particle vibrations. When a particle vibrates it makes the particle next to it vibrate. The pinna focuses these vibrations into the ear canal where the vibrations travel through the air and cause the ear drum to vibrate. The small bones in your ears move back and forth while the ear drum vibrates. The movement moves the membrane at the other end of the cochlea. The cochlea is filled with a liquid that vibrates and moves little hairs also inside the cochlea. The movement of these hairs is transferred into electrical signals that are sent to the brain by the auditory nerve. The brain translates these signals into the sounds we hear.
Phys - Discuss how the eye works.
Light rays travel to the cornea. The cornea is transparent to let the light through, but tough to protect the inner eye. Then the light passes through the pupil. The pupil is a hole that is controlled by the iris muscle. The iris can close to prevent too much light damaging the retina. The light then passes through the lens. The lens is a clear structure that refracts light rays and converges them through the vitreous humor and onto the retina. The retina is the back lining of the eye of the eye that contains light sensitive cells. These cells convert light falling on them into electrical and nervous messages. These messages are then sent to the brain.
Phys - Lable the ear
Phys - Lable the eye